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From Alternate History Worlds
|Centuries:||19th century - 20th century|
|Decades:||1800s 1810s 1820s – 1830s – 1840s 1850s 1860s|
The 1830s decade ran from January 1, 1830 to December 31, 1839.
- The British King George IV passes away. With no children, the crown goes to his brother, William, who becomes William IV. This new King has no legitimate children, however.
- The London Protocol agrees between the UK, France, and Russia that Greece is an independent power.
- The Belgian Revolution breaks out in July over discontent with the King as well as unemployment and nationalism. The revolution does well, but it sees a Conference called in London, the London Conference. In it, it is agreed that part of Belgium will be ceded to France, a Free State of Antwerp will be created, and part of it will be ceded to Prussia. In December, that is put into effect.
- In July, the French Monarchy of Charles X is overthrown, and Louis Philippe I is installed as King of a new Liberal French monarchy. The supporters of Charles X, Bourbons are unhappy with this. The other nations of Europe do not seem to mind.
- Another rebellion breaks out in Poland. While the Russians do decently in fighting it, the Poles take some land.
- The first inter-city railway is opened in Britain.
- Opium is sold by Europeans in China, angering the Chinese government.
- In order to expand their Empire, the French invade Algeria early in the year. It is defeated quickly.
- American setters continue to settle in Texas.
- The Indian Removal Act is passed by Congress, allowing settlers to have new lands in the south.
- The Book of Mormon is published by Joseph Smith and his followers in New York. It sees more recognition than OTL.
- The Republic of Ecuador leaves Gran Colombia with no fighting.
- The Polish is rebellion is smashed down hard by the Russians. Warsaw suffers heavy fighting during the Russian conquest in October. The Poles become even more opressed.
- The Hunchback of Notre-Dame is first published by Victor Hugo.
- The Dutch reform their provinces to match their new borders.
- Louis Philippe I makes several Liberal Reforms in France. This makes him very popular in France.
- It all starts when the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies without a clear heir. The Sublime Port takes control until a good heir is found. However the Sublime Port acts as a dictatorship, doing everything except finding the rightful heir. Unrest, that had already been rising for years, grows even bigger. Clashes occur and even within the army there is unrest. Several generals are swearing loyalty to different heirs. Muhammed Ali, who had been planning his revolt for years, starts his revolt in Egypt by attacking an Ottoman army post in the Nile Delta. The Ottomans suffer heavily. Since many of the Arabic population support Ali in his revolt and rise up themselves. During the battle of Damascus 10.000 Ottoman soldiers die, which result in even more local uprisings. The only reall succes of the Turks is the fact they managed to keep Bagdad under their control. This all starts a long war that will severly weaken the middle east...
(OOC: Clashes already happend earlier IOTL, but I forgot to add it in the base map. Lets say its wasnt map worthy enough and because of the dead Sultan it got even worse. Let's have Egypt be a little more succesfull ITTL, not bankrupting over modernisation attempts etc.).
- Russia start supporting all these rebels, especially the ones in the Balkan. Because of their succes in defeating the Poles many in the Russian amry think they could quickly move into the Balkan and maybe even take 'Tsargrad'.
- While Austria is nervously watching all these minorities rising up against their ruler.
- Malaysia is divided between the two sons of the Sultan who dies of fever.
- The Dutch annex yet another minor unimportant Indonesian country.
- The Boers lose a battle against the Zulus, after their defeat they move northwards to the Witwatersrand mountains, and they find gold and diamonds. And little more south they find coal and good land for agriculture.
- Word quickly spread and more and more Boers arrive from all over southern Africa.
- Even though they did not centralize into a real country yet it is expected they will do so soon.
- Arkansas is admitted as slave state.
- More Americans pour in Texas. Among them are a lot of Germans and Poles.
- A lot of Poles also start to immigrate catholic Argentina. (Easier acceptation than in Protestant America).
- In order to protect itself from the might of Mexico and Gran Colombia the USCA adports a new unitary contitution. Revolts and riots do happen in the country however after about 3 months order returns to the country.
- In order to keep Venezuela in New Granada promises help in colonising the claimed land in the south and east. Britian closely watches as she decides to sent her own settlers in. What could possibly go wrong?
- Just like in 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Sir John Conroy took Princess Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. However on the way back to London, they had to stop off in Berkshire, in the house of conservative Member of Parliament, Robert Palmer, due to Princess Victoria's deteriorating health, a doctor was called, however Princess Victoria, died before he could arrive, with the cause of death being put down to pneumonia caught while travelling.
- King William IV, on hearing the death of his niece and heiress presumptive, flew in to a fit of rage and sadness, banishing the Duchess of Kent back to her home town of Coburg in Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld in Bavaria. His heir presumptive, now went to his brother Prince Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, who was only six years younger then William.
- A cholera epidemic in London claims at least 3,000 victims. It spreads to France and North America later in the year.
- Napoleon II of France, son of Emperor Napoleon I dies on July 22. While King Louis Philippe I is nicknames "Louis the Liberal" by the French masses.
- Emperor Francis I of Austrian Empire, has had to sent the Austrian Army into southern Hungary to oppress Hungarian Nationalist. Francis fears that they are being funded by Russia
- To the annoyance to many European merchants, the Chinese government has banned the selling of opium within China.
- Egypt is officially seen as an Independent nation by Great Britain, Russia and France, with its East and Western borders being officially marked, while in the south it still faced opposition from the few rebels who remained loyal to the Ottoman Empire.
- Damat Mehmet Ali Pasha, the husband of Adile Sultan, one of Sultan Mahmud II's daughters, declares himself, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
- Witwatersrand becomes more and more populated with Boers, but they still have not declared themselves a sovereign nation.
- On February 24th while in the Senate, Missouri Senator, Thomas H. Benton, challenged fellow Senator Henry Clay to a duel for outrageous comments about President Jackson. Clay accepted, choosing pistols and Benton made the rule of 30 feet apart.
Clay's shot went wide, while Benton who had already had won one duel in his past, shot Clay through the chest puncturing his right lung, Clay died spitting bloody uttering his final words "I hope you are satisfied."
- After this duel, Congress then passed a law making it illegal to issue or accept duel challenge in Washington, D.C. (OTL this happens in 1838)
- November 14 – Charles Carroll, the last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence dies at his home in Maryland at age 95.
- American setters continue to settle in Texas.
- In Hiram, Ohio, a group of men beat, tar and feather Mormon leader Joseph Smith, Jr.. It is later found out that one of the blows to the head leads Smith Jr. blind.
- The U.S. President Election is between incumbent Democratic President, Andrew Jackson, with Vice President Martin Van Buren going against the National Republians with incumbent, Virginia Governor, John Floyd and former United States Attorney General, William Wirt (Maryland.)
It was a close election, with Jackson winning 50.7% & 189 EV and Floyde winning 48.6% & 97 EV.
- The Republic of Ecuador annexes the Galapagos.
- Rio Grande do Sul, erupts into a sea of revolts as Polish immigrants clash with Portuguese, the Poles are backed by Argentina.
- New Granada sends forces across its southern borders in an attempt to gain more land, they meet with resistance and angering Peru who were trying to settle in the region of Loreto
- [Ottoman Civil War]
With the ascension of Mehmet Ali I, a modicum of stability returns to the Ottoman Empire. The energetic new Sultan rallies his supporters, cleans out some of the corrupt officials that had brought political life to a standstill in the last few years and begins to focus on the external threats.
His efforts in the Balkans result in modest successes against the Greeks and the Bulgarians. However, the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia formally reject Ottoman suzerainty, bringing them fully into the Russian camp, and Bulgarian revolutionaries begin to receive Russian armaments as well.
Though there is no evidence that the Russians sponsored any Hungarian uprisings (those that exist are quickly suppressed and they turn out to be nothing more than an isolated radical movement), the suspicion of such, combined with the threat of Russia reaching Konstantiniyye and permanently upsetting the balance of power, persuades Francis II and other members of the Concert of Europe to take a stand against Russia and force them to moderate their ambitions. Russia gets to retain control over the Principalities and the great powers demarcate the lines of a future independent Bulgaria. Austria gets a free hand in Bosnia and Serbia.
Muhammad Ali gets victory disease and ventures into the Arabian peninsula, seeking to take Mecca. He does so easily, although clashes with local Arab revolutionaries who do not wish to be ruled from Cairo, leading to some low-scale conflict. He then insists on all of his claims being accepted in exchange for peace.
The Sultan doesn't accept and Egypt begins its march into Anatolia. It looks to be unopposed save for a small army of 50,000 men. Then, in what becomes known as the "Miracle of Antakya", the army routs Muhammad Ali's own army, almost double the size, and gives chase. This is made worse by the fact that the reactionary order of Europe doesn't want to see the Ottomans collapse and thus secretly starts supporting the Ottomans to curb Egyptian ambitions. Finally, while the Ottomans are forced to give up their Arabian lands, they lose significantly less land in the Levant than originally expected. The new borders are acknowledged by the great powers.
[Ottoman Civil War end]
- In Britain, workhouses are established for the poor. They are harsh places and provoke resentment among those who have no choice but to do mindless drudgery there to live. This doesn't really address any of the causes of poverty and some workers begin to whisper that they should demand more civil rights and economic reforms.
- The Zollverein (German Customs Union) is officially ratified on the 1st of January, eliminating internal tariffs within the German lands. Aside from Prussia, it is joined by various other smaller German states.
- The news of the peace treaty between the Ottomans and Egypt significantly reduces the resistance in Southern Egypt, although pro-Ottoman revolts still pop up occasionally.
- Large parts of Tunisia and Tripolitania are still held by revolters in the end of the year, but Tunis holds out and it looks like these revolts will soon be crushed as peace with Egypt and normalization of life in the Ottoman Empire improves their chances.
- The Mamluk dynasty, which rules Iraq, faces little Ottoman opposition as they do not prioritize this area. Baghdad is starved out and taken, and the Mamluks expand south and north, absorbing the less successful Kurdish and Armenian proto-nationalist rebellions in the process. They build up an army of 80,000 men, smaller than the Ottoman army but possibly enough for self-defense. Once the Ottomans start to send more soldiers to combat the Mamluks, the latter dig in, trying to negotiate the best deal they can get from the Sultan.
- The Vietnamese emperor Minh Mang, an isolationist who despises Western influence, oversees the execution of several Christian missionaries during the year. The executions are viewed with shock and outrage in the west.
- New waves of British and Grenadine settlers in the Guyana Essequibo region arrive and soon clashes begin between them. Relations between New Granada and Britain become chilly. New Granada temporarily halts its ambitions in Peru as it rattles its sabers in the east...
- Attempts by the Rio Grande do Sul province to negotiate decentralization and autonomy go awry, and thus the province breaks away from the central government, declaring the Piratini Republic. It is immediately recognized by Argentina, which pretty much controls it for the time being. As if it couldn't get worse, several northern provinces also experience major unrest, seeking to secede or at least force concessions as the locals feel marginalized in Brazilian politics.
- Sensing the weakness of the Mamlukes and the after having a spectators view of the Ottoman's deficiency, Persia invades Mesopotamia and the Gulf under the pretext of defending Shi'a Muslims. They managed to overwhelm the Mamluk army, who under pressure from Ottoman and Iranian forces is dangerously stretched thin. Much of Mesopotamia is overrun by the end of the year and Persian forces begin to push into the Gulf.
- Muhammad Ali continues his expansion in the Hedjaz, with the difficulty increasing the farther from Cairo he goes. He does manage to take Medina in August and with it, promotes himself Custodian of the Two Mosques and Caliph of Islam, much to the anger of... basically everyone around him. Not that they can do anything about it.
- Southern Egypt falls to Egyptian control, where the government quickly works to centralize and assert Cairo's authority.
- Later in the year Egypt tries to get others to accept Muhammad's claim of Caliph. This mostly comes in the form of patronizing the Sahelian states in Africa, selling arms and granting advisors to those who are willing to accept Cairo's claim. Darfur, Bornu and Wadai accept in exchange for this patronage. The Fula Jihad states are more hesitant however. Sokoto does exchange embassies and opens up diplomatic relations with Egypt however.
- Curiously, news travels to the Kabaka (king) of Buganda, Suna II. The news of strangers selling powerful weapons that can alter the balance of the cattle kingdoms is a tempting offer, and emissaries are soon sent out to Egypt...
- Tunisian forces find it difficult to advance into Tripoli, the latter who still recognize the Sultan in Constantinople's rule. However, the beylik of Tunis achieves de-facto independence at this year, as all pro Ottoman factions have been crushed.
- Inspired by the formation of the Zollverein, the Kingdom of Sardinia attempts to form a similar organization. (Help with name please?) Lucca, Modena, Tuscany, Parma and the Papal states join, but Sicily stays out.
- The events in Tunis catch the eye of the Sicilians.
- The first rails in Continental Europe are built in Antwerp and Wallonian France.
- The Sublime Porte adopts a new attitude, attempting to focus on the core lands and pull out from what is considered marginal from the time being until they can be retaken when the empire is strong enough. Thus, the Ottomans cut a deal with Greece, granting them marginal land in Epirus and Albania in exchange for peace. This frees up soldiers to attack the core in Bulgaria, reversing the advance and turning the war into a stalemate.
- On the other hand, they are not so lucky in Serbia, where the Serbs manage to take more territory with little fuss. Bosnian Muslims do put up a good fight and keep the interior relatively intact.
- Mexico signs a treaty with the Comanche nation, agreeing to respect their settlements in exchange for peace and an end to the raids into Mexican territory. In exchange, the Mexican army will aid the Comanche against their tribal enemies. This is seen as mutually beneficial by all as gives the Comanche extra help, keeps the army busy and in training and (in the eyes of the liberals) keeps the generals focused away from Mexico city. Many soldiers move north to aid the natives in their warfare, trying to claim fortune and glory. General Santa Anna personally joins the expeditions, claiming "To help oversee and aid the endeavors of our allies...", but really he is looking for an easy way to get back into the spotlight, where his fame has declined in the past 5 years. So far, the treaty works well, with the Comanche swiftly becoming the number one native power west of the Mississippi and the lack of raids in Mexican territory allowing for a decent amount of rebuilding.
- With relations between Bogota and London cooling, Colombia rapidly shifts to the French sphere. France eagerly takes advantage of this to increase its influence, sending advisers and granting loans. Similarly, relations are improved with the United States, Mexico and even Spain. At the same time, Colombia attempts to contest the British claim by sending settlers and attempting to increase more immigration from anywhere it can, from Haiti to Spain to Italy.
- The Ragamuffin war widens with revolts in the North and the South grow. Colombia watches with anticipation. A full scale slave revolt massively spirals out of control in the North. Luis Alves de Lima e Silva, manages to surpess many of the revolts in the north at the cost of his life in battle.
- Haiti chafes under the French indemnity and President Boyer's institutionalism of feudalism to increase sugar production, causing dissatisfaction amongst the Haitian peasants and the Dominicans.
- Friction begins between the provinces of the Federal Republic of Central America, but Nicaragua steadily asserts authority.
- Declaration of Independence of New Zealand is signed by a confederation of Maori chiefs who establish a functioning government. New Zealand sends out emissaries to recognize their new state. The Colonial office at London is not amused, but does not react immediately.
- Persia keeps getting spectacular gains against the Mamelukes, completely clearing them out of Mesopotamia. The Ottomans are growing more and more worried.
- Muhammed Ali decides to start consolidating his massive conquests, working to get as many muslims as possible to accept him as Caliph, while at the same time dealing with Southern Egypt and Hedjaz.
- Tensions between the Chinese and Britain rise as the controversial decision to ban opium is not received well by British Merchants.
- The Tunisian forces manage to take much of the Tripolitanian coast, but the interior remains strangely loyal to the Ottomans.
- Many more small Kingdoms in Africa acknowledge Ali as Caliph. Among these are Sokoto and Buganda, who are also developing embassies.
- Fighting a war and trying to modernise, Tunisia is raking in a fair amount of debt. Much of this debt is bought up by an expansionist Two Sicilies....
- The Ottomans gain some land from the Bulgarians but lose some as well. In the end, the rebellion has not been defeated.
- Serbia and Bosnia are a mess, with Turks, Bosnian Muslims and Serbian Christians all fighting each other. It doesn't help that Bulgaria has linked up with the Serbian rebels and both are assisting each other against other threats...
- A brief civil war occurs in Greece, however compared to the first it is bloodless. A new faction is now in control, with the stated goal of clearing the Turks from Europe and capturing the City of the World's Desire.
- More rails are built in Germany and surprisingly, Northern Italy. The railroad will soon explode everywhere.
- Americans in Texas are reaching a boiling point. There are calls for independence and annexation by the U.S, which Mexico City is refuting. Violence has already begun, and it's sure to only get worse.
- Meanwhile in D.C, Andrew Jackson and other prominent Americans start to talk about annexing Texas and even the possibility of other land from Mexico.
- The Mormons finally arrive at their destination: California. They "settle" where there were already a few Mexicans, but their massive numbers mean they pose no real threat. They spread out along the coast, and Mexico is not happy at all.
- The Comanche continue to develop militarily, growing despite Mexico's problems. They want nothing to do with the conflicts of the larger state, but will gladly accept help from the Mexicans.
- Future President Henry Scott is born in Maryland.
- A tense year in Columbia, as revolts are put down all around them.
- The British, distracted by the Balkans, continue to leave the New Zealanders alone.
- Martin Van Buren is sworn in as President.
- The Institute for Colored Youth is formed in Philadelphia.
- At the end of the year, Texas explodes into rebellion. Settlers have declared the formation of the Republic of Texas and have left Mexico.
- Michigan becomes a US state
- The Ragamuffin war continues, as the rebels gain ground.
- George VI passes away. With no Issue, his brother takes the throne as King Ernest I.
- Ottoman forces are slowly driven back, due to bother Bulgarian gains and sending men to the Eastern front.
Near the end of the year Russia threatens intervention in the Balkans.
- The Hungarian rebellion finally collapses. Some of the leaders flee into Transylvania, but the majority are rounded up and executed.
- the Tusnian invasion of Libya continues to stall.
- The Ottomans make minor gains against the Persians, but with both fronts going badly, those in Constantinople need to make a choice.
- Opium smuggling in China continues.
- The US ship, The Morrison arrives in Japan...and is promptly sunk by Japanese cannon fire.
- King Kamehameha III of Hawaii weds Chiefess Kalama Hakaleleponi Kapakuhaili. There is some controversy, as Kalama is of a lesser rank than Kamehameha.
- Election was in 1836.
- the basemap has been showing it as a state, even though it would not become one until 1837.
- The newly declared Republic of Texas formally sets out its borders. These are, of course, mostly theoretical, but the young Republic still claims to be the rightful owner of this enormous swathe of Mexico.
Mexican troops are expelled from a significant chunk of the Texan interior, with the rebels proving surprisingly formidable opponents. The new nations begins to secure more and more territory as the Mexican army scrambles to bring its manpower advantage to bear and bring more troops up from the south.
To make matters worse for Mexico it would appear that the Texan rebels are receiving substantial supplies of armaments from supporters over the border in the United States.
- The Ragamuffin war grinds on, with Brazilian efforts to crush the rebels continuing to prove unsuccessful.
- Anglo-Grenadine sabre-rattling continues as settlement in the region continues to pick up. With tensions on the rise Britain begins to contemplate reinforcing the local garrison.
- Word of the Morrison’s fate reaches the United States. The American public is, unsurprisingly, less than pleased by the news.
- The Ottomans begin to push back against the Bulgarian. However progress is slow and bloody. In Bulgaria bands of rebel soldiers play havoc behind the front line, striking at Ottoman supply lines whenever they can.
- Further west the conflict in Bosnia and Serbia grows, with Turks, Bosnians, Serbians and Croats all at one another’s throats as the Ottomans continue to struggle in their efforts to impose any kind of order over the area.
- Russia begins to shift large concentrations of troops into the Caucasus and the Danubian Principalities, hoping to persuade the Ottomans to seek terms in the Balkans. However there has been no declaration of war, nor any real escalation beyond harsh language as of yet.
- Tunisian troops manage to secure the remainder of Tripolitania’s coastline. However advancing inland remains somewhat difficult, with poor supply lines and the inhospitable terrain proving particular worries. Keeping the conflict properly funded is also problematic, though Sicilian financiers are always willing to “lend a hand”.
- The last few holdouts loyal to the Mamluks lay down their arms. This frees up additional troops for use against the Ottomans further north, while underlining Persia’s dominance over the Persian Gulf.
- The Ottomans make several concerted efforts to push the Persians back over the border and out of Mesopotamia. However they are far from successful. With their European territories still in chaos and the Persians apparently not for budging, Constantinople begins to contemplate making peace with Persia and concentrating on securing the Balkans.
- The Chinese government step up their efforts to persecute the trade in opium, with Chinese troops boarding European ships, destroying supplies of opium and taking merchants suspected of involvement into custody. China’s actions are heavily criticised by Britain, who accused the Chinese authorities of unfairly persecuting British traders and using disproportionate force.
- Argentina sends toops in to Rio Grande Do Sul under the cover of 'militairy advisors'
- The Texan revolt slowly grow. Mexico is expected to launch a militairy offensive soon.
- The United States meanwhile sends moeny and arms to the Texans.
- Because both the revolt in the north and south take up troops Brazil is unable to launch an offensive in either of those. They are thinking about negoiating for peace with the south so they can crush the northern rebels (the north had more valueable land).
- Britain and Colombia both start building numerous amounts of forts in Guyana, all reinorced with garrisons.
- The Ottoman civil war continues slowly and bloddy, but on Christmas, the Russians totally unexpectedly attack the Ottoman empire. (Due to the short time, not a lot has been conquered yet, however that will change).
- Austria meanwhile licks its wounds and isnt expected to intervene in the Ottoman civil war for the next two or three years.
Asia and Oceania
- Boosted by the Russian invasion Persia moves into Kurdistan.
- Britain decides it is done with China and declares war. The Opium war has begun...
- Under a new deal with the Brits, New Zealand become a protectocate. White people and Maori's have the same rights in here, something the whites are not really used to.
- In order to maintain full control of New Munster the Brits send many settlers, who are about to find gold and starting a gold rush.
- The Vrije Republiek Suid Afrika (Free Republic of South Africa) is declared. Settlers from Europe also start pouring in.
|Centuries:||19th century - 20th century|
|Decades:||1800s 1810s 1820s – 1830s – 1840s 1850s 1860s|