Etymological dictionary of Proto-Araqish


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Abbreviations

Dialectal divisions:

  • NW - Northwestern
  • NE - Northeastern
  • NC - Northcentral
  • SC - Southcentral
  • SW - Southwestern
  • SE - Southeastern

Substrate names:

  • Para-Ar. - Para-Araqish
  • Pre-SW - Pre-Southwestern

Parts of speech:

  • n - noun
  • v - verb
  • adj - adjective
  • denom adj - denominal adjective
  • partic - participle (deverbal adjective)
  • vn - action noun
  • part - particle
  • postp - postposition

A

  • abè [ɑbʰɛ] - n father; v to be father
  • agô [ɑgʰɔː] - n brother
    • agônæn [ɑgʰɔːnan] - n brotherhood
  • ama [ɑmɑ] - n mother; v to be mother
  • ar [ɑl] - v to flow, to swim
    • Araq [ɑɾɑq] - n Pre-Proto-Ar. alaq; from al- 'to flow' and aq- 'to break' → 'broken river; a river with many cascades or waterfalls'
    • artan [ɑltɑn] - n swimmer
    • aryúv [ɑljuːʋ] - n river (← 'flowing-water')
      • aryúvsí [ɑljuːʋsiː] - n stream
  • ara [ɑɾɑ] - n eye
  • aq [ɑq] - v to break, to crack
    • aqma [ɑqmɑ] - n crack

Á

  • áran [ɑːɾɑn] - n lake; may be from Pre-Proto-Ar. *al- 'to flow' (prolonging of vowel has unknown origin)

Æ

  • æk - adj sharp; n sharp edge
    • ætæk - v to sharpen
      • ætækkep - n sharpener

Ǽ

  • ǽt [aːt] - v to stand
    • ǽtǽt [æːtæːt] - v to stay, n stay

B

  • [bʰɑː] - v to beat
    • tubá [tubʰɑː] - v to shield against beatings
      • tubáder [tubʰɑːdʰel] - n shielding place
      • tubákep [tubʰɑːkep] - n shield
        • tubákeptan [tubʰɑːkeptɑn] - n warrior with shield
      • tubátan [tubʰɑːtɑn] - n defender
    • bábá [bʰɑːbʰɑː] - v to war; n war
      • bábáder [bʰɑːbʰɑːdʰel] - n battle field
      • bábákant [bʰɑːbʰɑːkɑnt] - n craft of war
      • bábátan [bʰɑːbʰɑːtɑn] - n warrior
      • tubábá [tubʰɑːbʰɑː] - v to repel attack, to defend; n defence
        • tubábáder [tubʰɑːbʰɑːdʰel] - n defence place
        • tubábátan [tubʰɑːbʰɑːtɑn] - n warrior-defender
  • biḍar [bʰiɖʰɑl] - n ibex
  • bork [bʰolk] - v to fence; n fortress, stronghold
  • bôṇ [bʰɔːŋ] - v to run
    • bôṇma [bʰɔːŋmɑ] - n run
    • bôṇtan [bʰɔːŋtɑn] - n runer
  • bôr [bʰɔːl] - v to boil; n boiling water
  • byǽs [bʰjaːs] - n side of body

D

  • dandè [dʰɑndʰɛ] - n oak
  • dathúd [dʰɑtʰuːdʰ] - n cedar
  • deṇe [dʰeŋe] - adj/n blue; v change to blue
  • deṇsu [dʰeŋsu] - n sky
  • djêrm [dʰjɛːlm] - adj/n red; v to redden
  • dôm [dʰɔːm] - n thunder; v to thunder
  • dumb [dʰumbʰ] - n tree
  • dúym [dʰuːjm] - 'v to pray; n prayer
  • dyǽr [dʰjaːl] - n mountain, v be in mountain
    • dyǽrdá [dʰjaːldʰɑː] - n grand mountain

  • ḍvôd [ɖʰʋɔːdʰ] - v to win
    • ḍvôdma [ɖʰʋɔːdʰmɑ] - n victory, triumph
    • ḍvôdtan [ɖʰʋɔːdʰtɑn] - n winner

E

  • eryǽ [eljaː] - n eel

É

  • ég [eːgʰ] - v to go, to walk, to come
    • égég [eːgʰeːgʰ] - v to wander, to migrate
      • égégnêr [eːgʰeːgʰnɛːl] - vn wandering, migration
      • égégtan [eːgʰeːgʰtɑn] - n wanderer, migrant
    • étæg [eːtagʰ] - v to drive
      • étægtan [eːtagʰtɑn] - n driver
    • tvég [tʋeːgʰ] - v to stop

È

  • èbên [ɛbʰɛːn] - n elephant

Ê

G

  • gáòn [gʰɑːˈɔn] - n dhole
  • gephyo [gʰepʰjo] - n fish; v to fish
    • gephyotan [gʰepʰjotɑn] - n fisher
      • gephyotanmóg [gʰepʰjotɑnmoːgʰ] - v fishing
  • gèth [gʰɛtʰ] - v to build
    • gèthma [gʰɛtʰmɑ] - n building
  • gint [gʰint] - n hand; v to oath, to swear
    • gintnêr [gʰintnɛːl] - vn oath
    • ginttan [gʰinttɑn] - n swearing man
  • gon [gʰon] - v to kill
    • gonder [gʰondʰel] - n slaughterhouse
    • gonkep [gʰonkep] - n homicide's tool
    • gonma [gʰonmɑ] - n homicide
      • gonmami [gʰonmɑmi] - n homicide's victim
    • gontan [gʰontɑn] - n killer
  • goṣ [gʰoʂ] - n coast, bank, edge
  • gothiṣ [gʰotʰiʂ] - n sheep
  • gúrḍ [gʰuːɭɖʰ] - n auroch
  • gyuṣ [gʰjuʂ] - v to blend, to mix; n blend, mix
    • gyuṣkep [gʰjuʂkep] - n mixer, tool for blending

Ġ

  • ġab [ɢʰɑbʰ] - adj big, great
  • ġáná [ɢʰɑːnɑː] - n family, lineage
  • ġárḍ [ɢʰɑːɭɖʰ] - n lion
  • ġed [ɢʰedʰ] - v to be ready
    • ġednæn [ɢʰedʰnan] - n readiness
    • ġetæd [ɢʰetadʰ] - v to prepare
  • ġíth [ɢʰiːtʰ] - adj high; v to raise, to increase, n height
    • ġíthdá [ɢʰiːtʰdɑː] - n deity
      • ġíthdámóg [ɢʰiːtʰdʰɑːmoːgʰ] - n teology
    • ġíthder [ɢʰiːtʰdʰel] - n high place, highland
  • ġór [ɢʰoːl] - adj round; n round, globular object; v to round
  • ġvòrġ [ɢʰʋɔlɢʰ] - adj wild; v to became wild; n wildness
    • ġvòrġnæn [ɢʰʋɔlɢʰnan] - n wilderness
    • ġvòrġder [ɢʰʋɔlɢʰdʰel] - n wild place

I

  • iṣ- [iʂ] - v to speak
    • iṣiṣ- [iʂiʂ] - v to talk
      • iṣiṣtan [iʂiʂtɑn] - n interlocutor
    • iṣtan [iʂtɑn] - n speaker, orator
    • tviṣ- [tʋiʂ] - v to reply

Í

  • íq [iːq] - v to eat
    • ítæq [iːtaq] - v to feed; n feed
      • ítæqtan [iːtaqtɑn] - n feeder

K

  • kaduq [kɑdʰuq] - n head, v to lead
    • kaduqmin [kɑdʰuqmin] - n leader, chief
  • kaòṣ [kɑˈɔʂ] - v to share; n share
  • kasik [kɑsik] - n garlic
  • keṇk [keŋk] - n wheel; v to wheel
  • kexeth [kehetʰ] - adj/n gray, v to gray
  • kivi [kiʋi] - n bone
  • kín [kiːn] - v to seek
    • kintan [kintɑn] - n seeker
    • tukín [tukiːn] - v to find, to discover
      • tukíntan [tukiːntɑn] - n finder, discoverer
  • korḍ [koɭɖʰ] - adj/n black; v to blacken
  • kôp [kɔːp] - v to sink
    • kôtæp [kɔːtap] - v to drown
      • kôtæptan [kɔːtaptɑn] - n kelpie
  • kuṣṭ [kuʂʈ] - v to shoot
    • kuṣṭtan [kuʂʈtɑn] - n shooter
  • kvay [kʋɑj] - v to live
    • kvaynæn [kʋɑjnan] - n life
  • kvæt [kʋat] - v to keep
    • kvætat [kʋatɑt] - v to hold someone/something

Kh

  • khamp [kʰɑmp] - v to help
  • kháṣá [kʰɑːʂɑː] - n daughter
  • khèdín [kʰɛdʰiːn] - n copper
  • khorák [kʰoɾɑːk] - n shark
  • khor [kʰol] - v to let
  • khorot [kʰoɾot] - n moon
  • khoson [kʰoson] - n pine
  • khuṭa [kʰuʈɑ] - n civet

M

  • mabú [mɑbʰuː] - n cobra
  • mat [mɑt] - n time
  • máṇġté [mɑːɴɢ̻ʰteː] - n cattle
  • mǽd [maːdʰ] - v to teach
    • mǽdmi [maːdʰmi] - n learner
    • mǽdtan [maːdʰtɑn] - n teacher
  • mesin [mesin] - n cherry
  • meṣṭe [meʂʈe] - n cat
  • mèlġ [mɛlɢʰ] - v to suck
    • mèlġò [mɛlɢʰɔ] - n breast
  • mêx [mɛːh] - v to move
    • mêxnæn [mɛːhnan] - n move
  • min [min] - n man
  • moth [motʰ] - v to fly, n flight
    • mothkep [motʰkep] - n wing
    • mothnêr [motʰnɛːl] - vn flying
    • mothté [motʰteː] - n bird
  • mód [moːdʰ] - n house
    • móddá [moːdʰdʰɑː] - n town, city
    • módġúmb [moːdʰɢʰuːmbʰ] - n banteng
  • mvar [mʋɑl] - n hair, fur
  • myéṇ [mjeːŋ] - v to smell
    • myéṇpê [mjeːŋpɛː] - n smell
  • myêr [mjɛːl] - n eagle

N

  • náb [nɑːbʰ] - v to know
    • nábpê [nɑːb̻ʰpɛː] - n knowledge
  • nêys [nɛːjs] - v to think; n think
    • nêystan [nɛːjstɑn] - n thinker
    • nêtays [nɛːtajs] - v to cause thinking
  • nóp [noːp] - adj weak
    • nótæp [noːtap] - v to weaken

  • ṇéṇ [ŋeːŋ] - v to vibrate, to twitch
    • ṇéṇma [ŋeːŋma] - n vibration

O

  • ophu [opʰu] - v to snow
    • ophuma [opʰumɑ] - n snow

Ó

  • órí [oːɾiː] - v to sing
    • óríma [oːɾiːmɑ] - n song
    • órítan [oːɾiːtɑn] - n singer

Ò

  • òr [ɔl] - num one; v to merge, to unite
    • òrma [ɔlmɑ] - n unity, merger

Ô

  • ôġ [ɔːɢʰ] - v to hate
    • ôġnæn [ɔːɢʰnan] - n hate
    • ôgtan [ɔːɢ̻ʰtɑn] - n hater

P

  • puq [puq] - v to cook

Ph

  • phæk [pʰak] - v to fit
  • phóṣ [pʰoːʂ] - v to foam; n foam
  • phòg [pʰɔgʰ] - v to guard, to secure
    • phògtan [pʰɔgʰtɑn] - n watchman
  • phúx [pʰuːh] - v to smoke; n smoke
  • phyos [pʰjos] - adj wise; v to became wise
    • phyostan [pʰjostɑn] - n wise person, sage

Q

  • qadyís [qɑdʰjiːs] - n caracal
  • qòmd [qɔmdʰ] - adj hard
    • qòmdnæn [qɔmdʰnan] - n hardness
  • qanq [qɑɴq] - n stone
    • qanqdá [qɑɴqdʰɑː] - n grand stone
  • qêm [qɛːm] - n earth, land
  • qos [qos] - adj old
    • qosnæn [qosnan] - n oldness
    • qotæs [qotas] - v to make look old
  • qòp [qɔp] - v to dig
    • qòpma [qɔpmɑ] - n burrow, excavation
    • qòptan [qɔptɑn] - n digger
  • qub [qubʰ] - v to fall
    • qubder [qubʰdʰel] - n place of fall
    • qubma [qubʰmɑ] - n fall
  • qún [quːn] - n fate; v to fate
  • qúq [quːq] - n milk; v to milk

Qh

  • qháp [qʰɑːp] - adj full; n fullness; v to fill
  • qhèr [qʰɛl] - v to burn
    • qhèrpê [qʰɛlpeː] - n flame
    • qhètær [qʰɛtal] - v to cause burning
  • qhot [qʰot] - v to sit, to sit down
    • qhokhat [qʰokʰɑt] - v to seat self ~ to settle
      • qhokhattan [qʰokʰɑttɑn] - n settler
    • qhotæt [qʰotat] - v to seat; n seat
  • qhòbá [qʰɔbʰɑː] - n monkey

R

  • ranté [ɾɑnteː] - n flower
  • raq [ɾɑq] - v to soak, to wet
    • raqnæn [ɾɑqnan] - n moisture
    • ratæq [ɾɑtaq] - v to wash
  • rár [ɾɑːl] - n sunshine, sunlight; v to light
  • rásvi [ɾɑːsʋi] - adj/n purple, v to purple
  • ræyx [ɾajh] - v to grow
    • ræyxma [ɾajhmɑ] - n plant
  • remb [ɾembʰ] - v to tremble
  • rép [ɾeːp] - v to creep
    • répma [ɾeːpmɑ] - n amphibian
  • règ [ɾɛgʰ] - n wolf
  • rin [ɾin] - adj new
    • rinnæn [ɾinnan] - n newness
    • ritæn [ɾitan] - v to renew, to restore
      • ritænnêr [ɾitannɛːl] - n renewing, restoring, renovation
      • ritæntan [ɾitantɑn] - n renewer, restorer, renovator
  • ruġ [ɾuɢʰ] - v to rub, to grind
    • ruġkep [ɾuɢʰkep] - n rubber
  • rusdu [ɾusdʰu] - adj/n brown; v to brown
  • ryǽṣ [ɾjaːʂ] - n word; v to express
  • ryém [ɾjeːm] - v to love
    • ryémnæn [ɾjeːmnan] - n love
  • ryôn [ɾjɔːn] - n night

S

  • samar [sɑmɑl] - adj green; n greenery; v to became green
    • samarder [sɑmɑldʰel] - n green place
  • sara [sɑɾɑ] - adj white; n whiteness; v to whiten
  • sarír [sɑɾiːl] - n rye
  • sæsu [sasu] - n sand; v to shower
  • sǽokh [saːˈokʰ] - n snake, serpent
    • sǽokhder [saːˈokʰdʰel] - n place of snakes
    • sǽokhtan [saːˈokʰtɑn] - n man of snakes
  • síṇġ [siːŋɢʰ] - n leopard
  • syôkh [sjɔːkʰ] - adj pink; n pink, rouge; v to rosy
  • sóryǽ [soːljaː] - adj yellow; n yellowness; v to yellow
  • súg [suːgʰ] - n dog
  • súr [suːl] - v to believe
    • súrnæn [suːlnan] - n faith
    • súrtan [suːltɑn] - n believer

  • ṣáqa [ʂɑːqɑ] - adj clean
    • ṣáqanæn [ʂɑːqɑnan] - n cleanliness
    • ṣáqatan [ʂɑːqɑtɑn] - n cleaner
  • ṣíp [ʂiːp] - v to lie, to be located, to be situated
    • ṣíppê [ʂiːppɛː] - n location, position, situation
  • ṣúb [ʂuːbʰ] - v to judge
    • ṣúbder [ʂuːbʰdʰel] - n court
    • ṣúbtan [ʂuːbʰtɑn] - n judge
  • ṣvǽr [ʂʋaːl] - adj golden; n gold; v to gild
    • ṣvǽrtan [ʂʋaːltɑn] - n goldsmith
      • ṣvǽrtanmóg [ʂʋaːltɑnmoːgʰ] - n goldsmith craft

T

  • tap [tɑp] - n hill
  • tǽt [taːt] - adj good; n goodness
  • tíṇs [tiːŋs] - v to remember
    • tíṇspê [tiːŋspɛː] - n memory
  • túr [tuːl] - v to grab; n finger
  • tyór [tjoːl] - v to trust
    • tyórnæn [tjoːlnan] - n trust

Th

  • thab [tʰɑbʰ] - v to draw on sand
    • thabnêr [tʰɑbʰnɛːl] - vn drawing on sand
  • thǽd [tʰaːdʰ] - n tooth; v to bite
    • môvthǽdas [mɔːʋtʰaːdʰɑs] - denom adj toothless
  • therg [tʰergʰ] - v to drag
    • thergma [tʰergʰmɑ] - n drag
  • thoroṣ [tʰoɾoʂ] - adj orange; n orange colour; v change to orange colour
  • thòqi [tʰɔqi] - n olive
  • thyèṣ [tʰjɛʂ] - n plum

  • ṭamphí [ʈɑmpʰiː] - n hemp
  • ṭand [ʈɑndʰ] - n source, spring, v to squirt
  • ṭip [ʈip] - v to touch
    • ṭipma [ʈipmɑ] - n touch
  • ṭoqh [ʈoqʰ] - v to create
    • ṭoqhma [ʈoqʰmɑ] - n creature
    • ṭoqhtan [ʈoqʰtɑn] - n creator

Ṭh

  • ṭháne [ʈʰɑːne] - n woman
  • ṭhíṣ [ʈʰiːʂ] - v to feel
    • ṭhíṣpê [ʈʰiːʂpɛː] - n feel
  • ṭhòp [ʈʰɔp] - v to catch
    • ṭhòptan [ʈʰɔptɑn] - n catcher
  • ṭhúr [ʈʰuːl] - n horn; v to gore

U

  • urg [ulgʰ] - v to expel, to banish
    • urgnêr [ulgʰnɛːl] - vn expelling, banishing
    • urgtan [ulgʰtɑn] - n someone expelled, banit

Ú

  • úr [uːl] - v to howl
  • úrnêr [uːlnɛːl] - vn howling

V

  • vár [ʋɑːl] - adv many; v to copy, to multiply
  • væthǽ [ʋatʰaː] - n cotton
  • vǽnyô [ʋaːnjɔː] - n meadow
  • ved [ʋedʰ] - v to trace
    • vedma [ʋedʰmɑ] - n trace
    • vedtan [ʋedʰtɑn] - n tracer
  • vèrd [ʋɛldʰ] - v to rule, to reign, to control
    • vèrdnæn [ʋɛldʰnan] - n rule, reign, control
    • vèrdtan [ʋɛldʰtɑn] - n ruler, controler
  • vín [ʋiːn] - v to divide, to diminish
    • vínma [ʋiːnmɑ] - n divide
  • vóy [ʋoːj] - v to howl as hyena [onomatopeic]
    • vóyté [ʋoːjteː] - n hyena

X

  • xaskaṣ [hɑskɑʂ] - n mongoose
  • xár [hɑːl] - v to ride; n ride
    • xártan [hɑːltɑn] - n rider
  • xáṣva [hɑːʂʋɑ] - n sea
    • xáṣvamin [hɑːʂʋɑmin] - n dolphin (← 'sea people')
  • xǽy [haːj] - adj warm; n warmth; v to warm
  • xeyn [hejn] - v to hallow; adj holy
    • xeynder [hejndʰel] - n temple
  • xèmè [hɛmɛ] - n flax
  • xôg [hɔːgʰ] - n fire
    • xôgder [hɔːgʰdʰel] - n campfire
    • xôgvík [hɔːgʰʋiːk] - n ash
    • xôgrǽx [hɔːgʰɾaːh] - n aurora (← 'false-fire')
  • xôrp [hɔːlp] - v to prey; n prey
    • xôrptan [hɔːlptɑn] - v predator
  • xuṭ [huʈ] - v to loan
    • xuṭpê [huʈpɛː] - n loan
  • xvaq [hʋɑq] - n horse
  • xvôr [hʋɔːl] - n sun

Y

  • yǽg [jaːgʰ] - v to hurt
    • yǽgma [jaːgʰmɑ] - n hurt
  • yǽk [jaːk] - v to prick
    • yǽksí [jaːksiː] - n spike, thorn
  • yór [joːl] - adj long
    • yótær [joːtal] - v to prolong, to lengthen
  • yúv [juːʋ] - n water

See Also