Proto-Thánan language

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Region Omoserica
Language family
  • Proto-Thánan



Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive p t c k ʔ
Fricative f v θ̠ ð̠ ç ʝ x ɣ h
Trill r
Lateral approximant l ʎ


p t c k ʔ /p t c k '/

f θ̠ ç x h /f θ ç ḫ h/

v ð̠ ʝ ɣ /v ð j x/

m n ɲ ŋ /m ń ŋ/

l ʎ r /l ḷ r/


Front Central Back
Unrounded Rounded Unrounded Rounded
Mid-Close ɘ ɵ
Mid-Open ɛː ɞ
Open ɑ ɒː


Long vowels

iː uː /í ú/

ɛː /é/

ɒː /á/

Long vowels

ɘ ɵ /i u/

ɞ /e/

ɑ /a/



C = any consonant
R = any resonantal consonant
V = any vowel
Vː = any long vowel


Morphologically unchanged, on first syllable of main root.



  • ergative-genetive alignment
  • secundative ditransitive alignment
  • four cases (suffixal): Ergative, Genetive, Instrumental, Prepositional
  • no gender
  • definite article, indefinite article based on number one.
  • number (preffixal): singular, plural

[Article] + [Number + Root + Root extension + Case]


Ergative - hulmá wolf agent, lexical form
Genetive -θe hulmáθe wolf, of wolf intransitive subject, patient, ditransitive recipient, possessor
Instrumental -lal hulmálal by wolf, with wolf instrument, accompaniament, ditransitive theme
Relational -ni hulmáni (in/at/to/...) wolf used with various relational nouns


Singular - keme man
Plural ti- / c- tikeme men


Definite ða ða çrél the flower
Indefinite ha ha çrél a flower

Relational nouns

Relational noun + [Noun + Relative case ending]

Xáç 'ar θíp ða katapni ða juke.

"The dog is sleeping on top of the mat."

'aḫu inside in
θíp top on
kavða head above
tám bottom under
pék side beside
xál distance away
ciŋke centre between
kelp back behind, after
náḫ outside out
vekele wheel around
'aftu front before, opposite to
númu time during, in time of
Other relationals
Companion, attributive object jeh with
Originative direction 'ari from
Destinative direction, purpose, goal haθu to
Lack vajeh without
Alternative kelke instead
Contrary tavá against
Resistance haθri despite, though
Stylization xajva along to, according to
Benefactive ńín for, destined to
Essive 'íçu as, at character of


  • transitivity marked
  • two aspects: progressive, stative
  • two moods: realis, irrealis
  • causative infixed into root

[Aspect + (Root + Causative) + Root extension + Transitivity + Mood] + [Object] + [Subject]


Incompletive - 'uc to go (incomplete action)
Completive reduplication of root's onset 'u'uc to go (completed action)


Non-causative - kén to see
Causative -ra- kéran to show


Intransitive - 'ic to eat (in intransitive clause)
Transitive -eh 'iceh to eat (in transitive clause)


Realis - kláθ to speak
Irrealis -tú kláθtú would speak (and other non-declarative meanings)

Non-finite verbal forms

Action noun -lí jíplí living
Infinitive -at -'at jípat to live
Participle -ní jipní living

Adjective / Adverb

Degrees of comparison

Positive Comparative Superlative
- -já -θar
fíl fíḷá (← fíl-já) fílθar
good better best


Cardinal numerals

1. harakap
2. kucara
3. varakma
4. varakma-kucara
5. varakma-kucara-harakap

Derived numerals

Ordinal Multiplicative Reproductive Distributive
ju kín ta'éh pep
1. harakap ju harakap kín harakap ta'éh harakap pep
2. kucara ju kucara kín kucara ta'éh kucara pep
3. varakma ju varakma kín varakma ta'éh varakma pep
4. varakma-kucara ju varakma-kucara kín varakma-kucara ta'éh varakma-kucara pep
5. varakma-kucara-harakap ju varakma-kucara-harakap kín varakma-kucara-harakap ta'éh varakma-kucara-harakap pep


Personal pronouns

Singular Plural
1. jíθ I we all, but not you
nám we all, together with you
2. çí Thou θem You all
3. 'ar He / she / it cam They all
Singular Plural
1. ni me li us all, but not you
nemi us all, together with you
2. çíri Thee θemri You all
3. 'arri Him / her / its camri Them all

Possessive pronouns

Singular Plural
1. nijah my léjah of us all, but not you
námjah of us all, together with you
2. çíjah thy θemjah of you all
3. 'arjah his / her / its camjah of they all

Demonstrative pronouns

Definite Indefinite
Person / Object ða this ha someone / something
Place ðanah here hanah somewhere
Path ðatrem this way hatrem some way
Time ðanúm now hanúm then
Method ðanréθ in this way hanréθ in some way
Quantity ðaxáli so much
Quality ðaḫa'ov like this haḫa'ov like something
Reason ðapanθi for this reason hapanθi for some reason

Interrogative, relative, indefinite and unlimited pronouns

Interrogative / Relative Indefinite Unlimited
Person / Object xat who ? which ? xavi someone xaθuŋlu anyone
Place xanah where ? xanahvi somewhere xanahθuŋlu anywhere
Path xatrem which way ? xatremvi via some way xatremθuŋlu via any way
Time xanúm when ? xanúmvi once xanúmθuŋlu ever
Method xanréθ how ? xanréθvi somehow xanréθθuŋlu anyhow
Quantity xaxáli how much ? xaxálivi somehow much xaxáliθuŋlu anyhow much
Quality xaḫa'ov which one ? xaḫa'ovvi some xaḫa'ovθuŋlu any
Reason xapanθi why ?

Negative, universal and alternative pronouns

Negative Universal Alternative
Person / Object vexa nobody, nothing járxa every rúxaθuŋ anyone else
Place vexanah nowhere járnah everywhere rúnahθuŋ elswhere
Path vexatrem through no way jártrem through all ways rútremθuŋ which way else
Time vexanúm never járnúm always rúnúmθuŋ when else
Method venréθ nohow járnréθ in all methods rúnréθθuŋ otherwise
Quantity vexáli nothing rúxáliθuŋ otherwise than so many
Quality veḫa'ov neuter, indistinct járvi any rúθuŋ other

Numeral pronouns

Interrogative / Relative xaxáli how much ?
Indefinite xaxálivi write a number
Unlimited xaxáliθuŋlu however many
Negative vexáli nothing
Alternative rúxáliθuŋ otherwise than so many

Reflexive-reciprocal pronoun

Reflexive / Reciprocal liŋ oneself / each other



Paratactical conjunctions
Copulative and
Conjunctive híni also
Disjunctive te or
Contrastive, exceptional té' but
Consequentive ḫúm so
Comparative jaf than
Hypotactical conjunctions
fáða to, for
helða althought
'elkip because
θíŋ that, providing


Restrictive lete only
Additive hute yet

Polarity particles

Affirmative na yes
Negative ve no

Word formation




Noun to noun
Diminutive -ńí tlíńcitlińcińi daughter → little daughter
Augmentative -uxa / -xa vaðúvaðúxa mountain → grand mountain
Contradiction ve- kemevekeme human → non-human
Similarity -ḫa'ov pampúpampúḫa'ov tree → pseudo-tree
Half -θele jukejukeθele dog → half-dog
Relational abstract -mén karaḷkaraḷmén brother → brotherhood
Related person -ní vúvavúvaní cow → cowman
Collective -ḫar feteθfeteθḫar bird → birds (a a collective)
Place -nah kekkeknah fire → campfire
Art / Craft -tu'ok ḫaraŋḫaraŋtu'ok war → craft of war
Knowledge -ðáv-ḫar kuθlíkuθlíðávḫar herb → herbalism
Expert -ðáv-ní kuθlíkuθlíðávní herb → herbalist
Noun to adjective
Possessive -ma kemekemema man → human
Originative -'ari návunávu'ari sky → celestial
Similaritive -ḫa'ov-ma jukejukeḫa'ovma dog → canid
Feature -jár-ma fjéθfjéθjárma hair → hairy
Affiliative -jeh-ma tímpatímpajehma family → familiar
Privative ve-...-ma funtvefuntma tooth → toothless


Verb to noun
Agentive -ní fút-fútní (to) shoot → shooter
Experiencer, adressee, object -liŋ-ní θríl-θrílliŋní (to) teach → learner
Result -fe kap-kapfe (to) fall → (a) fall
Instance -naç kláθ-kláθnaç (to) speak → speech
Instrument -tul ḫap-ḫaptul (to) beat → whip
Place -nah xem-xemnah (to) kill → slaughterhouse
Verb to verb


Adjective to noun
Abstract -mén xártxártmén strong → strength
Adjective to adjective
Intensification -xál dáŋdáŋxál big → very big
Excess -líń míŋkmíŋklíń small → too small


Word order

  • VOS
  • head-initial

Copular particles

Translative became
Essive 'aç' be

See Also