Proto-Tḷantali dialects


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Most distinctive features

Middle Proto-Tḷantali Northern (Doryaki) Southern
Western (Kæræsi) Central (Sadravi) Eastern (Nodafi)
Phonology
i iː i iː i i̯ə i əi̯ ɪ iː
ɯ ɯː ɨ ɨː ɯ ɯ̯ə ɯ əɯ̯ ʊ uː
u uː u uː u u̯ə u əu̯ ʊ uː
e̞ e̞ː e eː e̞ e̯ə e eː ɘ eː
ɤ̞ ɤ̞ː ə əː ɤ̞ ɤ̯ə ɤ ɤː o oː
o̞ o̞ː o oː o̞ o̯ə o oː ɵ oː
æ æː ɛ ɛː æ æ̯ə æ æː a aː
ɑ ɑː ä äː ɑ ɑ̯ə ä äː ɒ ɒː
t tˠ k q tʰ tʰ cʰ kʰ t k k q t k k q t ʈ k q
b d dˠ g ɢ p t t c k b d g g ɢ b d g g ɢ b d ɖ g ɢ
b̰ d̰ d̰ˠ g̰ ɢ̰ b d d ɟ g bʰ dʰ gʰ gʰ ɢʰ bʰ dʰ gʰ gʰ ɢʰ b d ɖ g ɢ
f θ θˠ s sˠ {x~χ} f s s s x {h} f θ x s x f h θ̠ s x f θ ʂ s ʂ
v ð ðˠ z zˠ {ɣ~ʁ} v z z z z {ø ʀ} v ð ɣ z ɣ v z ð̠ z ɣ v ð ʐ z ʐ
{ɹ~ɹˠ} ɹ {ɹ ɣ} ɹ ɣ ɹ ɻ
j w ʝ ʋ j w j w j w
ɬ ɮ ɬ ɮ ɕ ʑ ɕ ʑ x l
t͡ɬ d͡ɮ d̰͡ɮ t͡ɬʰ t͡ɬ d͡ɮ t͡ɕ d͡ʑ d͡ʑʰ t͡ɕ d͡ʑ d͡ʑʰ k͡x dl dʰl
t͡ɬˠ d͡ɮˠ d̰͡ɮˠ t͡ɬʰ t͡ɬ d͡ɮ kɕ gʑ gʰʑ kɕ gʑ gʰʑ ʈ͡ʂ ɖ͡ʐ ɖ͡ʐʰ
l lˠ l l l ʟ l ʟ l ɭ
Morphology

Comparative wordlist

Middle Proto-Tḷantali Northern (Doryaki) Southern
Western (Kæræsi) Central (Sadravi) Eastern (Nodafi)
tælæ [tælæ] sea [tʰɛlɛ] [tælæ] [tælæ] [tala]
maxu [maɣu] earth, land [mäʀu] [mɑɣu] [mäɣu] [mɒɣʊ]
gyksy [gɯksɯ] stone [cɨcʰsɨ] [gɯksɯ] [gɯksu] [gʊksʊ]
ugaru [ugɑɹu] wolf [ucäɹu] [ugɑɹu] [ugäɹu] [ʊgɒɹʊ]
kóli [ko̞ːli] lake [cʰoːli] [koːli] [ko̯əli] [koːli]
borḍǽ [bo̞ɹd̰æː] coast, bank, edge [poɹdɛː] [bo̞ɹdʰæ̯ə] [boɹdʰæː] [boɹdaː]
lejgæ [le̞jgæ] green [leçcɛ] [le̞jgæ] [lejgæ] [lɘjga]
taba [tɑbɑ] hill [tʰäpä] [tɑbɑ] [täbä] [tɒbɒ]
ufæxḍǽ [ufæɣd̰æː] horse [ufɛːdɛː] [ufæɣdʰæː] [ufæɣdʰæː] [ufaɣdaː]
isjǽḷ [isjæːɬ] sun [iʝʝɛːɬ] [izjæ̯əɕ] [izjæːɕ] [ɪzjaːx]
istǽlge [istæːlge̞] sky [istʰɛːlke] [istæ̯əlge̞] [istæːlge] [ɪstaːlgɘ]
ismǽri [ismæːɹi] moon [izmæːɹi] [izmæ̯əɹi] [izmæːɹi] [ɪzmaːɹɪ]
isġǽm [izɢ̰æːm] time [iskɛːm] [izɢʰæ̯əm] [izɢʰæːm] [ɪzɢaːm]
isḍúlo [izd̰uːlo̞] night [izduːlo] [izdʰu̯əlo̞] [izdʰuːlo] [ɪzduːlɵ]
ḅábú [b̰ɑːbuː] big, great [bäːpuː] [bʰɑːbuː] [bʰäːbuː] [bɒːbuː]
isḍaxád [izd̰ɑɣɑːd] thunder [izdäʀäːt] [izdʰɑɣɑːd] [izdʰäɣäːd] [izdɒɣɒːd]
ollə́sa [o̞llɤ̞ːsɑ] milk [olləːsä] [o̞llɤ̯əsɑ] [ollɤːsä] [olloːsɒ]
ġáw [ɢ̰ɑːw] mountain [käːʋ] [ɢʰɑːw] [ɢʰäːw] [ɢɒːw]
islér [isle̞ːɹ] light [izleːɹ] [izle̯əɹ] [izleːɹ] [ɪzleːɹ]
olol [o̞lo̞l] water [olol] [o̞lo̞ɹ] [olow] [olol]
θórja [θo̞ːɹjɑ] source, spring [soːɹʝä] [θo̯əɹjɑ] [hoːɹjä] [θoːɹjɒ]
æðǽm [æðæːm] man [ɛzɛːm] [æðæ̯əm] [æzæːm] [aðaːm]
sís [siːs] good [siːs] [si̯əs] [səi̯s] [siːs]
wák [wɑːk] one [ʋäːcʰ] [wɑ̯ək] [wäːk] [wɒːk]
qoda [qo̞dɑ] two [kotä] [qo̞dɑ] [qodä] [qɵdɒ]
sebdæ [se̞bdæ] three [septɛ] [se̞bdæ] [sebdæ] [sɘbda]
oqəda [o̞qɤ̞dɑ] four [okətä] [o̞qɤ̞dɑ] [oqɤdä] [ɵqodɒ]
inθ'edæ [inθˠe̞dæ] five [insetɛ] [inxe̞dæ] [inθ̠edæ] [ɪnʂɘda]
anḷəda [ɑnɬɤ̞dɑ] six [änɬətä] [ɑɲɕɤ̞dɑ] [äɲɕɤdä] [ɒŋxodɒ]
bǽldæ [bæːldæ] seven [pɛːltɛ] [bæ̯əldæ] [bæːltæ] [baːlta]
xaðda [ʁɑðdɑ] eight [ʀästä] [ɣɑðdɑ] [ɣäzdä] [ɣɒðdɒ]
hagəda [xɑgɤ̞dɑ] nine [häcətä] [hɑgɤ̞dɑ] [hägɤdä] [hɒgodɒ]
dógda [do̞ːgdɑ] ten [toctä] [do̯əgdɑ] [doːgdä] [doːgdɒ]
dógda qoda [do̞ːgdɑ qo̞dɑ] twelve [toːctäkotä] [do̯əgdɑ qodɑ] [doːgdä qodä] [doːgdɒ qodɒ]
dodógda [do̞do̞ːgdɑ] (one) hundred [totoːctä] [do̞do̯əgdɑ] [dodoːgdä] [dɵdoːgdɒ]
gyndógda [gɯndo̞ːgdɑ] (one) thousand [cɨntoːctä] [gɯndo̯əgdɑ] [gɯndoːgdä] [gʊndoːgdɒ]
umərθə [umɤ̞ɹθɤ̞] cat [uməɹsə] [umɤ̞ɹθɤ̞] [umɤɹhɤ] [ʊmoɹθo]
xok [ʁo̞k] fire [ʀocʰ] [ɣo̞k] [ɣok] [ɣɵk]
ytundu [ɯtundu] tree [ɨθuntu] [ɯtundu] [ɯtundu] [ʊtʊndʊ]
uwóḅan [uwo̞ːb̰ɑn] cow [uʋoːbän] [uwo̯əbʰɑn] [uwoːbʰän] [ʊwoːbɒn]
æheġ'e [æxe̞g̰e̞] brother [ɛheɟe] [æhe̞gʰe̞] [æhegʰe] [ahɘgɘ]
ukunu [ukunu] dog [ucʰunu] [ukunu] [ukunu] [ʊkʊnʊ]
me [me̞] I [me] [me̞] [me] [mɘ]
θa [θɑ] thou [sä] [θɑ] [hä] [θɒ]
ke [ke̞] he / she / it [cʰe] [ke̞] [ke] [kɘ]
kota [ko̞tɑ] house [cʰotʰä] [ko̞tɑ] [kotä] [kotɒ]
ezbærúm [ezbæɹuːm] war [espɛɹuːm] [e̞zbæɹu̯əm] [ezbæɹəu̯m] [ɘzbaɹuːm]
issoð'a [isso̞ðˠɑ] fate [issozä] [isso̞ɣɑ] [issoð̠ä] [issɵʐɒ]
t'ónda [tˠo̞ːndɑ] wise [tʰoːntä] [ko̯əndɑ] [koːndä] [ʈoːndɒ]
ahuly [ɑxulɯ] eye [ähulɨ] [ɑhulɯ] [ähulɯ] [ɒhʊlʊ]
adḷag [ɑd͡ɮɑg] hand [ät͡ɬäc] [ɑd͡ʑɑg] [äd͡ʑäg] [ɒdlɒg]
ḷan'go [ɬɑŋgo̞] round, globular object [ɬäɲco] [ɕɑŋgo̞] [ɕäŋgo] [xɒŋgɵ]
ten'etóm [te̞ŋe̞to̞ːm] family, lineage [tʰeɲetʰoːm] [te̞ŋe̞to̯əm] [teŋetoːm] [tɘŋɘtoːm]
akə́pθə [ɑkɤ̞ːpθɤ̞] tooth [äcʰəːpʰsə] [ɑkɤ̯əpθɤ̞] [äkɤːphɤ] [ɒkoːpθo]
aθ'əḷə [ɑθˠɤ̞ɬɤ̞] hair, fur [äsəɬə] [ɑxɤ̞ɕɤ̞] [äθ̠ɤɕɤ] [ɒʂoxo]
dón'agú [do̞ːŋɑguː] fall [toːɲäcuː] [do̯əŋɑgu̯ə] [doːŋägəu̯] [doːŋɒguː]
isḷédlǽn [isɬe̞ːdlæːn] speech [isɬeːtlɛːn] [iɕɕe̯ədlæːn] [iɕɕeːdlæːn] [isxeːdlaːn]
borxa [bo̞ɹɣɑ] hammer [poʀʀä] [bo̞ɹɣɑ] [boɹɣä] [bɵɹɣɒ]
æwóḅænkǽr [æwo̞ːb̰æŋkæːɹ] cowman [ɛʋoːpɛɲcʰɛːɹ] [æwo̯əbæŋkæ̯əɹ] [æwoːbæŋkæːɹ] [awoːbaŋkaːɹ]
betḷe [be̞t͡ɬe̞] meal [pet͡ɬʰe] [be̞t͡ɕe̞] [bet͡ɕe] [bɘk͡xɘ]
lá-akə́pθorhə [lɑː.ɑkɤ̞pθo̞ɹxɤ̞] toothless [läː.äcʰəpʰsoɹhə] [lɑ̯ə.ɑkɤ̞pθo̞ɹhɤ̞] [läː.äkɤphoɹhɤ] [lɒː.ɒkopθɵɹho]
ḍýg [d̰ɯːg] strong [dɨːc] [dʰɯ̯əg] [dʰɯːg] [duːg]
vóġtəl [vo̞ːgtɤ̞l] slaughterhouse [voːctʰəl] [vo̯əgtɤ̞l] [voːgtɤl] [voːgtol]
xoktəl [ʁo̞ktɤ̞l] campfire [ʀocʰtʰəl] [ɣo̞ktɤ̞l] [ɣoktɤl] [ɣɵktol]
æheġ'efili [æxe̞g̰e̞fili] brotherhood [ɛheɟefili] [æhe̞gʰe̞fili] [æhegʰefili] [ahɘgɘfɪlɪ]
ætéheskǽr [æte̞ːxe̞skæːɹ] teacher [ɛtʰeːhescʰɛːɹ] [æte̯əhe̞skæ̯əɹ] [æteːheskæːɹ] [ateːhɘskaːɹ]
ætéhesælkǽr [æte̞ːxe̞sælkæːɹ] learner [ɛtʰeːhesɛlcʰɛːɹ] [æte̯əhe̞sælkæːɹ] [æteːhesælkæːɹ] [ateːhɘsalkaːɹ]
obáġkunu [o̞bɑːɢ̰kunu] half-dog [opäːckunu] [o̞bɑːqqunu] [obäːkkunu] [ɵbɒːkʊnʊ]
barúmrə́n' [bɑɹuːmɹɤ̞n] craft of war [päɹuːmɹən] [bɑɹu̯əmɹɤ̞n] [bäɹəu̯mɹɤn] [bɒɹuːmɹon]
kalad [kɑlɑd] bread [cʰälät] [kɑlɑd] [käläd] [kɒlɒd]
ġáwġá [ɢ̰ɑːwɢ̰ɑː] grand mountain [gäːʋgäː] [ɢʰɑ̯əwɢʰɑ̯ə] [ɢʰäːwɢʰäː] [ɢʰɒːwɢʰɒː]
éθǽlwæ [eːθæːlwe̞] daughter [eːsɛːlʋɛ] [e̯əθæ̯əlwe̞] [eːhæːlwe] [eːθaːlwɘ]
ishezǽd [isxe̞zæːd] star [ishezɛːt] [ishe̞zæːd] [ishezæːd] [ɪshɘzaːd]
isbólæ [izbo̞ːlæ] gold [ispoːlɛ] [izbo̯əlæ] [izboːlæ] [ɪzboːla]
labátə [lɑbɑːtɤ̞] copper [läpäːtʰə] [lɑbɑ̯ətɤ] [läbäːtɤ] [lɒbɒto]
bǽkjele [bæːkje̞le̞] wheel [pɛːɟʝele] [bæ̯əkje̞le̞] [bæːkjele] [baːkjɘlɘ]
ḍórum [d̰o̞ːɹum] front [doːɹum] [dʰo̯əɹum] [dʰoːɹum] [dʰoːɹʊm]
qettæ [qe̞ttæ] side of body [ketʰtʰɛ] [qe̞ttæ] [qettæ] [qɘtta]
zævjǽ [zævjæː] high [zɛvʝɛː] [zævjæ̯ə] [zævjæː] [zavjaː]
essǽn' [e̞ssæːŋ] deity [essɛːɲ] [e̞ssæ̯əŋ] [essæːŋ] [ɘssaːŋ]
æn'epkǽr [æŋe̞pkæːɹ] shooter [ɛɲepʰcʰɛːɹ] [æŋe̞pkæːɹ] [æŋepkæːɹ] [aŋɘpkaːɹ]
sǽjní [sæːjniː] flower [sɛːʝɲiː] [sæːjni̯ə] [sæːjnəi̯] [saːjniː]
isjéve [izje̞ːve̞] sunshine [izʝeːve] [izje̯əve] [izjeːve] [ɪzjeːvɘ]
fórwi [fo̞ːɹwi] warm [foːɹʋi] [fo̯əɹwi] [foːɹwi] [foːɹwɪ]
qólqa [qoːlqɑ] full [qoːlqä] [qo̯əlqɑ] [qoːlqä] [qoːlqɒ]
olwaḷa [o̞lwɑɬɑ] word [olʋäɬä] [o̞lwɑɕɑ] [olwäɕä] [ɵlwɒxɒ]
ḅaxḍý [b̰ɑɣd̰ɯː] wild [bäɣdɨː] [bʰɑɣdʰɯ̯ə] [bʰäɣdʰəɯ̯] [bɒːduː]
yθəskə [ɯθɤ̞skɤ̞] garlic [ɨsəscʰə] [ɯθɤ̞skɤ̞] [ɯhɤskɤ] [ʊθosko]
ykýsula [ɯkɯːsulɑ] cherry [ɨkɨːsulä] [ɯkɯ̯əsulɑ] [ɯkəɯ̯sulä] [ʊkuːsʊlɒ]
yjə́lma [ɯjɤ̞ːlmɑ] olive [ɨjəːlmä] [ɯjɤ̯əlmɑ] [ɯjɤːlmä] [ʊjoːlmɒ]
əfahta [ɤ̞fɑxtɑ] cotton [əfähtä] [ɤ̞fɑhtɑ] [ɤfähtä] [ofɒhtɒ]
uḅýsy [ub̰ɯːsɯ] bee [ubɨːsɨ] [ubʰɯ̯əsɯ] [ubʰəɯ̯sɯ] [ʊbuːsʊ]
yt'oloθ [ɯtˠo̞lo̞θ] plum [ɨtʰolos] [ɯko̞lo̞θ] [ɯkoloh] [ʊʈɵlɵθ]
yḷamə́ [ɯɬɑmɤ̞ː] flax [ɨɬämɤː] [ɯɕɑmɤ̯ə] [ɯɕämɤː] [ʊxɒmoː]
oġáwa [o̞ɢ̰ɑːwɑ] dhole [ogäːʋä] [o̞ɢʰɑ̯əwɑ] [oɢʰäːwä] [ɵɢɒːwɒ]
oḅáxys [o̞b̰ɑːʁɯs] leopard [obäːʀɨs] [o̞bʰɑ̯əɣɯs] [obʰäːɣɯs] [ɵbɒːɣʊs]
osan'gyr [o̞sɑŋgɯɹ] cheetah [osäɲcɨɹ] [o̞sɑŋgɯɹ] [osäŋgɯɹ] [ɵsɒŋgʊɹ]
uḅálva [ub̰ɑːlvɑ] lion [ubäːlvä] [ubʰɑːlvɑ] [ubʰäːlvä] [ʊbɒːlvɒ]
usýzu [usɯːzu] snake [usɨːzu] [usɯ̯əzu] [usəɯ̯zu] [ʊsuːzʊ]
uqətrás [uqɤ̞tɹɑːs] cobra [ukʰətʰɹäːs] [uqɤ̞tɹɑs] [uqɤtɹäs] [ʊqotɹɒs]
udḷýva [ud̰͡ɮɯːvɑ] mongoose [ud͡ɮɨːvä] [ud͡ʑɯ̯əvɑ] [ud͡ʑəɯ̯vä] [ʊg͡ɣuːvɒ]
utḷáw [ut͡ɬɑːw] fish [ut͡ɬʰäːʋ] [ut͡ɕɑːw] [ut͡ɕäw] [ʊk͡xɒːw]
uwýjá [uwɯːjɑː] hyaena [uʋɨːʝäː] [uwɯːjɑː] [uwɯːjä] [ʊwuːjɒː]
ukadýs' [ukɑdɯːsˠ] civet [ucʰätɨːx] [ukɑdɯːx] [ukädɯːx] [ʊkɒduːʂ]
ojáwý [o̞jɑːwɯː] peafowl [oʝäːʋɨː] [o̞jɑːwɯː] [ojäwɯː] [ɵjɒːwuː]
ubawḍáx [ubɑwd̰ɑːʁ] ibex [upäʋdäːʀ] [ubɑwdʰɑːɣ] [ubäwdʰäːɣ] [ʊbɒwdɒːɣ]
uváġ' [uvɑːg̰] sheep [uväːg] [uvɑ̯əgʰ] [uväːgʰ] [ʊvɒːg]
ukjóbo [ukjo̞ːbo̞] monkey [uɟʝoːpo] [ukjo̯əbo̞] [ukjoːbo] [ʊkjoːbɵ]
oḍḷáxva [od̰͡ɮɑːɣvɑ] elephant [od͡ɮäːvä] [o̞d͡ʑɑ̯əɣvɑ] [od͡ʑäɣvä] [ɵg͡ɣɒːvɒː]
os'áma [o̞sˠɑːmɑ] caracal [oxäːmä] [o̞xɑ̯əm] [oxäːmä] [ɵʂɒːmɒ]
uqurul [uquɹul] shark [ukʰuɹul] [uquɹul] [uquɹul] [ʊqʊɹʊl]
okjǽræ [okjæːɹæ] eagle [oɟʝɛːɹɛ] [o̞kjæ̯əɹæ] [okjæːɹæ] [ɵkjaːɹa]
yḍáx [ɯd̰ɑːɣ] oak [ɨdäːʀ] [ɯdʰɑ̯əɣ] [ɯdʰäːɣ] [ʊdɒːɣ]
yqəsan [ɯqɤ̞sɑn] pine [ɨkʰəsän] [ɯqɤ̞sɑn] [ɯqɤsän] [ʊqosɒn]
ydagrus' [ɯdɑgɹusˠ] cedar [ɨtäcɹux] [ɯdɑgɹux] [ɯdägɹux] [ʊdɒgɹuʂ]
abylqə [ɑbɯlqɤ̞] head [äpɨlkʰə] [ɑbɯlqɤ̞] [äbɯlqɤ] [ɒbʊlqo]
odavóx [o̞dɑvoːɣ] auroch [otävoːʀ] [o̞dɑvo̯əɣ] [odävoːɣ] [ɵdɒvoːɣ]
oġ'árva [o̞g̰ɑːɹvɑ] cattle [oɟäɹvä] [o̞gʰɑːɹvɑ] [ogʰäɹvä] [ɵgɒːɹvɒ]
oḍan'guk [o̞d̰ɑŋguk] gaur [odäɲcucʰ] [o̞dʰɑŋguk] [odʰäŋguk] [ɵdɒŋgʊk]
obavul [o̞bɑvul] banteng [opävul] [o̞bɑvul] [obävul] [ɵbɒvʊl]
t'arna [tˠɑɹnɑ] horn [tʰäɹnä] [kɑɹnɑ] [käɹnä] [ʈɒɹnɒ]
waxda [wɑɣdɑ] meadow [ʋäːtä] [wɑɣdɑ] [wäɣdä] [wɒɣdɒ]
oġ'áry [o̞g̰ɑːɹɯ] tiger [oɟäːɹɨ] [o̞gʰɑ̯əɹɯ] [ogʰäɹɯ] [ɵgɒːɹʊ]
otalma [o̞tɑlmɑ] dolphin [otʰälmä] [o̞tɑlmɑ] [otälmä] [ɵtɒlmɒ]
yxný [ɯɣnɯː] rye [ɨːnɨː] [ɯɣnɯ̯ə] [ɯɣnəɯ̯] [ʊɣnuː]
yz'ajḅa [ɯzˠɑjb̰ɑ] hemp [ɨɣäçpä] [ɯɣɑjbʰɑ] [ɯɣäjbʰä] [ʊɣɒjbɒ]

See Also