Proto-Tḷantali language


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Proto-Tḷantali
Pronunciation /t͡ɬɑntɑli/
Region Originalia
Language family
  • Proto-Tḷantali
ProtoTḷantali.png
  Proto-Tḷantali


Phonology

Consonants

Bilabial Labiodental Dental Velarized dental Alveolar Velarized alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal m n ŋ~ɴ
Plosive b b̰ t d d̰ tˠ dˠ d̰ˠ k g g̰ q ɢ ɢ̰
Fricative f~fˠ v~vˠ θ ð θˠ ðˠ s z sˠ zˠ x~χ ɣ~ʁ
Approximant ɹ~ɹˠ j w
Lateral fricative ɬ~ɬˠ ɮ~ɮˠ
Lateral affricate t͡ɬ d͡ɮ d̰͡ɮ t͡ɬˠ d͡ɮˠ d̰͡ɮˠ
Lateral approximant l

Vowels

Front Back
Unrounded Rounded
High i iː ɯ ɯː u uː
Mid e̞ e̞ː ɤ̞ ɤ̞ː o̞ o̞ː
Low æ æː ɑ ɑː

Vocalic harmony

Front i iː e̞ e̞ː æ æː
Neutral u uː o̞ o̞ː
Back ɯ ɯː ɤ̞ ɤ̞ː ɑ ɑː

A-mutation

Low vowels /æ æː ɑ ɑː/ are causing a vowel mutation, in which high vowels /i iː ɯ ɯː u uː/ are lowering to middle counterparts /e̞ e̞ː ɤ̞ ɤ̞ː o̞ o̞ː/ before syllable containing low vowels.

Phonotactics

(C)V(ː)(C)

C = any consonant V = any short vowel Vː = any long vowel

Accent

First syllable for singular number, last syllable for plural. Words may have only one stress. Monosyllabic words are unstressed, but pronouns have two variants: monosyllabic singular pronouns are unstressed, but the same forms in plural are stressed for distinction.

Grammar

Noun

Morphemic order: Class + (Root + Number) + Root extensions + Definiteness + Possession

Definiteness

Neutral - ugaru wolf
Indefinite -a ugarua a wolf
Definite -re ugarurə the wolf

Noun class

Human masculine æ- æðǽm man
Human feminine í- íðǽm woman
Animal u- ugaru wolf
Vegetal y- ydýn birch
Body parts a- aḷós' ear
Spiritual is- iððǽm ancestor
Substantial ol- olol water
Other - gyksy stone

Possession

Subordinating Equal Subordinated
my -mí our -mís my -me our -mes my -mu our -mus
thee -θáy your -θáys thee -θa your -θas thee -θu your -θus
his / her / its -keí their -keís his / her / its -ke their -kes his / her / its -ku their -kus

Verb

Morphemic order: [Subject] + [Modal particle] + [Modal verb] + [Root + Circumstantiality + Aspect] + [Object]

Circumstantiality

Circumstantials are promoting object of a transitive or ditransitive clause into position of subject.

Agentive - tək be closing
Patientive -al təkal be closed
Indirective -em ġərəm be having received ...
Instrumental -od- ketod be cutting with ...
Vialis -is ǽris be going via ...
Ablative -áθ ǽrǽθ be going from ...
Allative -íḷ ǽríḷ be going to ...
Benefactive -ów ǽrów be going for ...

Aspect

Inchoative -iḅ- ḷýdyḅ began speaking
Incompletive - ḷýd be speaking
Defective -otḷ- ḷýdotḷ almost be said
Completive -ag- ḷə́dag be said

Evidentiality

Visual vǽ ḅat be beat (and I was seeing it)
Heard ḷós' ḷós ḅat be beat (and I was hearing it)
Other - ḅat be beat (and I know it from another source)

Non-finite verbal forms

Actionals
Action noun -nan tḷə́hnan living
Infinitive -nað' tḷə́hnað' to live
Participles
Adjective -ní tḷə́hný living
Adverbial -ne tḷə́hnə living

Numerals

Cardinal numerals

1. wák
2. qoda
3. sebdæ
4. oqəda
5. inθ'edæ
6. anḷəda
7. bǽldæ
8. xaðda
9. hagəda
10. dógda
11. dógda wák
12. dógda qoda
20. qoda dógda
21. qoda dógda wák
30 sebdæ dógda
100. dodógda
101. dodógda wák
120. dodógda qoda dógda
121. dodógda qoda dógda wák
200. qoda dodógda
1.000. gyndógda
10.000. dógda gyndógda

Derived numerals

Ordinal Multiplicative Reproductive Distributive Fractional
-ori -sarah -tóta -wín -mæk
1. wákory wáksarah wáktóta wákwýn wákmak
2. qodaory qodasarah qodatóta qodawýn qodamak
3. sebdæori sebdæsæræh sebdætóta sebdæwín sebdæmæk
4. oqədaory oqədasarah oqədatóta oqədawýn oqədamak
5. inθ'edæori inθ'edæsæræh inθ'edætótæ inθ'edæwín inθ'edæmæk
6. anḷədaory anḷədasarah anḷədatóta anḷədawín anḷədamak
7. bǽldæori bǽldæsæræh bǽldætótæ bǽldæwín bǽldæmæk
8. xaðdaory xaðdasarah xaðdatóta xaðdawýn xaðdamak
9. hagədaory hagədasarah hagədatóta hagədawýn hagədamak
10. dógdaory dógdasarah dógdatóta dógdawýn dógdamak
11. dógda wákory dógda wáksarah dógda wáktóta dógda wákwýn dógda wákmak
20. qoda dógdaory qoda dógdasarah qoda dógdatóta qoda dógdawýn qoda dógdamak
21. qoda dógda wákory qoda dógda wáksarah qoda dógda wáktóta qoda dógda wákwýn qoda dógda wákmak
100. dodógdaory dodógdasarah dodógdatóta dodógdawýn dodógdamak
101. dodógda wákory dodógda wáksarah dodógda wáktóta dodógda wákwýn dodógda wákmak
120. dodógda qoda dógdaory dodógda qoda dógdasarah dodógda qoda dógdatóta dodógda qoda dógdawýn dodógda qoda dógdamak
121. dodógda qoda dógdaory dodógda qoda dógdasarah dodógda qoda dógdatóta dodógda qoda dógdawýn dodógda qoda dógdamak
200. qoda dodógdaory qoda dodógdasarah qoda dodógdatóta qoda dodógdawýn qoda dodógdamak
1000. gyndógdaory gyndógdasarah gyndógdatóta gyndógdawýn gyndógdamak
10.000. dógda gyndógdaory dógda gyndógdasarah dógda gyndógdatóta dógda gyndógdawýn dógda gyndógdamak

Numeral adverbs

gýn many
tíḷ little
báġ half
kalsarah how many times ?
rəsarah so often

Pronouns

Personal pronouns

Subordinating Equal Subordinated
I / we amí me meru
thou / you θáy θa θaru
he / she / it / they keí ke keru

Demonstrative pronouns

Proper Distant
Person / Object re this da that
Place retol here datol there
Source abrə from here abdə from there
Purpose direction arrə to here ardə to there, so far
Path revæd this way davad that way
Time reġæm now daġam then
Method reben in this way dabən in that way
Quantity regén so much
Qualify rekæḷ like this here dakaḷ like that
Reason reów for this reason daów for that reason

Interrogative, relative, indefinite and unlimited pronouns

Interrogative / Relative Indefinite Unlimited
Person / Object t'ə who ? which ? t'əzə someone t'əwákə anyone
Place t'əbo where ? t'əbozə somewhere t'əbowákə anywhere
Source átt'əbo (← áθ + t'əbo) whence ? átt'əbozə from somewhere átt'əbowákə from anywhere
Purpose direction iḷt'ebo whither ? iḷt'ebozə to somewhere iḷt'ebowákə to anywhere
Path ist'ebo which way ? ist'ebozə via some way ist'ebowákə via any way
Time t'eġǽm when ? t'eġǽmze once t'eġǽmwǽke ever
Method t'eben how ? t'ebenze somehow t'ebenwǽke anyhow
Quantity t'eli how much ? t'elize somehow much t'eliwǽke anyhow much
Qualify t'ere which one ? t'ereze some t'erewǽke any
Reason t'ereów why ?

Negative, universal and alternative pronouns

Negative Universal Alternative
Person / Object lat'ə nobody, nothing vǽrt'e every irt'ə anyone else
Place lat'əbo nowhere vǽrt'ebo everywhere irt'ebo elswhere
Source laátt'əbo from nowhere vǽrǽtt'ebo from everywhere irǽtt'ebo from elswhere
Purpose direction layḷt'əbo to nowhere vǽriḷt'ebo to everywhere iriḷt'ebo to elswhere
Path layst'əbo through no way vǽrist'ebo through all ways irist'ebo which way else
Time lat'əġám never vǽrt'eġǽm always irt'eġǽm when else
Method lat'əbən nohow vǽrt'eben in all methods irt'eben otherwise
Quantity lat'əly nothing irt'eli otherwise than so many
Quality lat'ərə neuter, indistinct vǽrt'ere any irt'ere other

Numeral pronouns

Interrogative / Relative t'eli how much ?
Indefinite t'elize write a number
Unlimited t'eliwǽke however many
Negative lat'əly nothing
Alternative irt'eli otherwise than so many

Reflexive / reciprocal and cooperative pronouns

Reflexive / Reciprocal oneself
Cooperative wód (← ú + od) together cooperatively

Prepositions

Spatials, ablatival and allatival directionals

ú in, inside
sy on
sybo above
under
úbyk beside
máb away
nahdy between
behind
vídi out
digur around
ḍór before, opposite to
úgám during, in time of
di after

Other postpositions

Companion, attributive object od with
Origin áθ from
Lack laod without
Alternative úpár instead
Contrary gúḍór against
Resistance dire despite, though
Stylization úbən along to, according to

Particles

Conjunctions

Paratactical conjunctions
Copulative po and
Conjunctive épo also
Disjunctive aθa or
Contrastive, exceptional ǽk but
Consequentive és so
Comparative jo than
Hypotactical conjunctions
iḷé to, for
kælé althought
kidæ because
iri if
that, providing

Modifiers

Restrictive wákə only
Additive irve yet

Intensifiers

Very strongly áġ áġ wǽlí to whiten very strongly
Strongly ḍǽ ḍǽ wǽlí to whiten strongly
Normally - wǽlí to whiten
Weakly ḷí ḷí wǽlí to whiten lightly
Very weakly sí wǽlí to whiten very lightly

Polarity particles

Affirmative yes
Negative no

Word formation

Compounding

Derivation

Noun

Noun to noun
Diminutive -nú íθǽlwæéθǽlwænú daughter → little daughter
Augmentative -ġá ġáwġáwġá mountain → grand mountain
Contradiction lá- (not causing a-mutation) æðǽmlá-æðǽm human → non-human
Similarity -jóka ytundu(y)tundujóka tree → pseudo-tree
Half báġ- ukunuubáġkunu dog → half-dog
Relational abstract -fyly æheġ'eæheġ'efili brother → brotherhood
Related person -kǽr uwóḅanæwóḅænkǽr cow → cowman
Collective -tóm okaḷýsokaḷýstóm bird → birds (a a collective)
Place -tel xokxoktəl fire → campfire
Art / Craft -rén' ezbærúmbarúmrə́n' war → craft of war
Knowledge -xóð'-tóm ufohjaufohjaxóð'tóm herb → herbalism
Expert -xóð'-kǽr fohjaxóð'fohjaxóḍ'kár herbalist knowledge → herbalist
Noun to adjective
Possessive -nen æðǽmæðǽmnen man → human
Originative -ním istǽlgetǽlgením sky → celestial
Similaritive -sampá umərθəumərθəsampá cat → felid
Feature -orhe aθ'əḷəθ'eḷjórhe hair → hairy
Affiliative -in ten'etómten'etómin family → familiar
Privative lá-...-[any adjectivizer] akə́pθəlá-akə́pθorhə tooth → toothless

Verb

Verb to noun
Agentive -kǽr n'ip-æn'epkǽr (to) shoot → shooter
Experiencer, adressee -al-kǽr téhæs-ætéhesælkǽr (to) teach → learner
Result -agú dón'-dón'agú (to) fall → (a) fall
Instance -lán ḷýd-isḷédlǽn (to) speak → speech
Instrument -od qáh-qáhod (to) beat → whip
Place -tel vóġ-vóġtəl (to) kill → slaughterhouse
Verb to verb

Adjective

Adjective to noun
Abstract -fyly ḍýgizḍígfili strong → strength
Adjective to adjective
Tendency -maḷḷa síssísmæḷḷæ good → bland
Intensification -gaxí ḅábúḅábógaxý big → very big
Excess -níri tíḷḷítíḷḷíníri small → too small

Syntax

Word order

Word order is SVO, and is not free. Subject of a clause is always first before an object. Reversing of order of subject and object means replacing the theta roles between those.

Copular verb

Copular roots are combined with evidentiality.

Visual vǽv (← vǽ + ve) be (because something is visible)
Heard ḷóves (← ḷós + ve) be (because something is heard)
Other ve be (because knowledge has another origin)

Modal verbs

Potentional nád Expresses an action or situation which may be happen.
Hypothetical móh Expresses a counterfactual but possible event or situation.
Precative jíl Expresses a requests.
Dubitative Expresses a dubious event or action.
Desiderative ġúl Expresses a wishes or desires.
Jussive xǽs Expresses a moral pressure for an action or event.
Obligative gata Expresses an obligation from a personal oath, honour, contract or another event or action.
Permissive jét Expresses a subject's permission to action or event.
Necessitative kóḍa Expresses an event or action, which is needed as a way to purpose.

Notes

  • Adjectives are replaced by stative verbs and nouns. Intensificative particles are counterparts of comparison's degrees.

See Also