Proto-Araqish language


Warning: Parameter 1 to Cite::clearState() expected to be a reference, value given in /home/raytheor/public_html/ahworlds/w/includes/Hooks.php on line 195
From Alternate History Worlds
Jump to: navigation, search
Proto-Araqish
Pronunciation /ɑɾɑqiʂ/
Region Originalia
Language family
  • Proto-Araqish
ProtoAraqish.png
  Proto-Araqish

Phonology

Vowels

Front Back
High i iː u uː
Mid-High e eː o oː
Mid-Low ɛ ɛː ɔ ɔː
Low a aː ɑ ɑː

Consonants

Bilabial

Labiodental Dental Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Plosive p pʰ bʰ t̪ t̪ʰ d̪ʰ ʈ ʈʰ ɖʰ k kʰ gʰ q qʰ ɢʰ
Fricative ʂ h
Nasal m (ɳ) ŋ (ɴ)
Tap or flap ɾ̪ (ɽ)
Approximant ʋ (l̪) (ɭ) j

Araqistic notation

Vowels

Front Back
High i í u ú
Mid-High e é o ó
Mid-Low è ê ò ô
Low æ ǽ a á

Consonants

Bilabial

Labiodental Dental Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Plosive p ph b t th d ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh g q qh ġ
Fricative s x(1)
Nasal m n
Tap or flap r(2)
Approximant v y

(1) Also <h> is permitted.
(2) Phonemically, lateral consonants are variants of taps in syllabic coda.

Phonotactics

(C)(G)V(ː)(R)(C)

C = any consonant
G = glide or approximant
V = any short vowel
= any long vowel
R = any resonantal consonant

Geminates in the same syllable are disallowed.

Accent

First, acute accent is raising on penultimate syllable. Second, grave accent is falling on last syllable.

Grammar

Noun

Morphemic order: [Definiteness + Root + Derivative extension(s) + Collectivity + Case]

Definiteness

Indefinite - règ (a) wolf
Definite Proper se- se-règ the wolf
Visual distant ṭa- ṭa-règ that wolf
Non-visual distant va- va-règ yonder wolf

These prefixes also can exist independently in similar role to demonstrative pronouns.

Collectivity

Collective - règ (a) wolf / "wolf-ity"
Singulative règò (a) one wolf

Declension

Nominative Active subject of transitive and intransitive verbs, lexical form, donor of ditransitive verbs - min (a) man
Accusative Inactive subject or patient, recipient of ditransitive verbs -am minam (a) man
Instrumental Instrument, method, manner, instruction, accompaniament, theme of ditransitive verbs -vá minvá by/with a man
Vialis Spatial/temporal way, path -rí minrí via (a) man
Allative Direction to a target -ṭha minṭha to (a) man
Ablative Direction from something, separation -de minde from (a) man
Locative Place, space, position -su minsu (in) (a) man
Genitive Possessing side, various postpositions -ni minni of (a) man
Benefactive Destination to something -phú minphú for (a) man

Inactive nouns have accusatival endings for the Nominative.

Verb

Morphemic order: [(Aspect + Root + Voice) + Root extension(s) + State + (Subject + Tense) + Object]

Aspect

Progressive - yév- (to) look, observe
Stative Ce-CV(ː)- yeyév- (to) see

Voice

Active - yév- (to) look, observe
Middle -si- yésiv- (to) look on self
Causative -tæ- yétæv- (to) to pay attention, (to) cause looking to smth
Middle-Causative1 -kha- yékhav- (to) pay attention to self, (to) cause looking to self

1 - rare, reserved only for several verbs

State (Secondary aspect)

Inceptive -ar- yévar- began to see
Continuative -im- yévim- still to see
Pausative -ith- yévith- stop to see
Terminative -èb- yévèb- end to see

Tense and persons

Present subjective persons
Singular Plural
1. -an I -ama we
2. -ak you -aka you
3. -o he / she / it -oha they
4. - someone / something  
Non-present subjective persons
Singular Plural
1. -amu I -amav we
2. -aku you -akav you
3. -ov he / she / it -ova they
4. -u / -v someone / something  
Objective persons
Singular Plural
1. -un / -n me -una / -na us
2. -akh / -kh you -akha / -kha you
3. -ôṣ / -ṣ he / she / it -ôṣa / -ṣa them
4. -ur / -r someone / something  

Non-finite verbs

Action noun -nêr yévnêr vision, seeing
Participles
Adjectival -té yévté seeing
Adverbial -tú yévtú seeing

Adjective

Adjectives in syntactical conditions are divided into two groups dependent and independent.
Dependent form occurs before nouns, and is inflected in the three cases; Nominative, Objective and Instrumental, and don't have the collectivity affix.
Independent form is inflected as a nouns, and can be used as an abstract nouns.
All adjectives inflect by four degrees.

Dependent adjectives' declension

Nominative - tǽt good
Objective -am tǽtam (of/in/to/from) good
Instrumental -vá tǽtvá (by/with) good

Degrees of comparison

Positive Comparative Optimative Superlative
- -yò -yár -tís
tǽt tǽtyò tǽtyár tǽttís
good better best (of a group) best (of a total)

Adverb

Deadjectival adverbs are created by special suffix. They are inflected by degree.

Degrees of comparison

Positive Comparative Optimative Superlative
-e -yê -yáre -tíse
tǽte tǽtyê tǽtyáre tǽttíse
well better best (of a group) best (of a total)

Numerals

Cardinal numerals

1. òr
2. ḍaxá
3. taryú
4. ambuqi
5. khadru
6. khaṣḍu
7. tôqtu
8. kyáskhu
9. davsu
10. máthu
11. máthu òr-vo
12. máthu ḍaxá-vo
20. ḍaxmáthu
21. ḍaxmáthu òr-vo
30 taryúmathu
100. mamêth
101. mamêth òr-vo
120. mamêth ḍaxmáthu-vo
121. mamêth ḍaxmáthu-vo òr-vo
200. ḍaxá mamêth
1.000. varmêth
10.000. máthu varmêth

Derived numerals

Ordinal Multiplicative Reproductive Distributive Fractional
-uk / -k -ph-as -and-as / -nd-as -uk-as / -k-as -nôy
1. òruk òrphas òrandas òrukas òrnôy
2. ḍaxák ḍaxáphas ḍaxándas ḍaxákas ḍaxánôy
3. taryúk taryúphas taryúndas taryúkas taryúnôy
4. ambuqik ambuqiphas ambuqindas ambuqikas ambuqinôy
5. khadruk khadruphas khadrundas khadrukas khadrunôy
6. khaṣḍuk khaṣḍuphas khaṣḍundas khaṣḍukas khaṣḍunôy
7. tôqtuk tôqtuphas tôqtundas tôqtukas tôqtunôy
8. kyáṣkuk kyáṣkuphas kyáṣkundas kyáṣkukas kyáṣkunôy
9. davsuk davsuphas davsundas davsukas davsunôy
10. máthuk máthuphas máthundas máthukas máthunôy
11. máthuk òruk-vo máthu òruphas-vo máthu òrundas máthu òrukas máthu òrunôy
20. ḍaxmáthuk ḍaxmáthuphas ḍaxmáthundas ḍaxmathukas ḍaxmathunôy
21. ḍaxmáthuk òruk-vo ḍaxmáthu òruphas-vo ḍaxmáthu òrundas-vo ḍaxmáthu òrukas-vo ḍaxmáthu òrunôy-vo
100. mamêthuk mamêthuphas mamêthundas mamêthukas mamêthunôy
101. mamêthuk òruk-vo mamêthu òruphas-vo mamêthu òrundas-vo mamêthu òrukas-vo mamêthu òrunôy-vo
120. mamêthuk ḍaxmáthuk-vo mamêthu ḍaxmáthuphas-vo mamêthu ḍaxmáthundas-vo mamêthu ḍaxmáthukas-vo mamêthu ḍaxmáthunôy-vo
121. mamêthuk ḍaxmathuk-vo òruk-vo mamêthu ḍaxmáthu òruphas-vo mamêthu ḍaxmáthu òrundas-vo mamêthu ḍaxmáthu òrukas-vo mamêthu ḍaxmáthu òrnôy-vo
200. ḍaxá mamêthuk ḍaxá mamêthuphas ḍaxá mamêthundas ḍaxá mamêthukas ḍaxá mamêthunôy
1000. varmêthuk varmêthuphas varmêthundas varmêthukas varmêthunôy
10.000. máthu varmêthuk máthu varmêthuphas máthu varmêthundas máthu varmêthukas máthu varmêthunôy

Numeral adverbs

váre many
víne little
tyap half
qòrephas how many times ?
serephas so often

Pronouns

Personal pronouns

Personal pronouns inflect by case in the same way as a nouns.

Singular Plural
1. na I we
2. khú thou here ṇé you here
ṭú thou there you there
3. óm he / she / it here óma they here
ês he / she / it there êsa they there
4. ṣá someone / something here
ġá someone / something there

Possessive pronouns

Singular Plural
1. nas my més our
2. khús thy here ṇés your here
ṭús thy there yôs your there
3. ómas his / her / its here ómsa their here
êsas his / her / its there êssa their there
4. ṣás someone / something else's here
ġás someone / something else's there

Demonstrative pronouns

Proper Distant Visual Distant Non-Visual
Person / Object se this ṭa that va someone / something there
Place seder here ṭader there vader somewhere there
Source sederer from here ṭaderer from there vaderer from somewhere there
Purpose direction sederkè to here ṭaderkè to there, so far vaderkè to somewhere there
Path sónda (← se-gonda) this way ṭónda (← ṭa-gonda) that way vónda (← va-gonda) some way
Time semat now ṭamat then
Method ses in this way ṭas in that way vas in some way
Quantity sere so much
Qualify seṇúr like this here ṭaṇúr like that vaṇúr like something there
Reason sephú for this reason ṭaphú for that reason vaphú for some reason

Interrogative, relative, indefinite and unlimited pronouns

Interrogative / Relative Indefinite Unlimited
Person / Object who ? which ? òqò someone òqòráy anyone
Place qòder where ? òqòder somewhere òqòderráy anywhere
Source qòderer whence ? òqòderer from somewhere òqòdererráy from anywhere
Purpose direction qòderkè whither ? òqòderkê to somewhere òqòderkêrráy to anywhere
Path qónda (← qò-gonda) which way ? òqònda via some way òqòndaráy via any way
Time qòmat when ? òqòmat once òqòmatráy ever
Method qás how ? òqás somehow òqásráy anyhow
Quantity qòre how much ? òqòre somehow much òqòreráy anyhow much
Qualify qòṇúr which one ? òqòṇúr some òqòṇúrráy any
Reason qòphú why ?

Negative, universal and alternative pronouns

Negative Universal Alternative
Person / Object môqò nobody, nothing qòṣár every ínqò anyone else
Place môqòder nowhere òqòderṣár everywhere ínqòder elswhere
Source môqòderer from nowhere òqòdererṣár from everywhere inqòderer from elswhere
Purpose direction môqòderkè to nowhere òqòderkèṣár to everywhere ínqòderkè to elswhere
Path môqónda through no way òqóndaṣár through all ways ínqónda which way else
Time môqòmat never òqòmatṣár always ínqòmat when else
Method môqás nohow òqásṣár in all methods ínqás otherwise
Quantity môqòre nothing òqòreṣár otherwise than so many
Quality môqòṇúr neuter, indistinct òqòṇúrṣár any ín other

Numeral pronouns

Interrogative / Relative qòre how much ?
Indefinite òqòre write a number
Unlimited òqòreráy however many
Negative môqòre nothing
Alternative òqòreṣár otherwise than so many

Reflexive, reciprocal and cooperative pronouns

Reflexive oneself
Reciprocal ḍárè (← ḍaxá + rè) each other
Cooperative rèbyæ (← rè + byæ) together cooperatively

Postpositions

Spatials, ablatival and allatival directionals

iv in, inside Locative
from inside Ablative
to inside Allative
ir on Locative
from on Ablative
to on Allative
súr above Locative
from above Ablative
to above Allative
du under Locative
from under Ablative
to under Allative
byæ beside Locative
from beside Ablative
to beside Allative
ġó away Locative
from away Ablative
to away Allative
ḍaxív between Locative
from between Ablative
to between Allative
behind Locative
from behind Ablative
to behind Allative
sók out Locative
from out Ablative
to out Allative
keṇkiv around Locative
from around Ablative
to around Allative
phôr before, opposite to Locative
from before, from opposite to Ablative
to before, to opposite to Allative
mativ during, in time of Locative
from time of Ablative
to time of Allative
ku after Locative
from after Ablative
to after Allative

Other postpositions

Companion, attributive object vóv (← vo-vá) with Instrumental
Material, substantion, origin er from Ablative
Lack môv (← mô-vá) without Genitive
Alternative deriv instead Genitive
Contrary phôrer against Allative
Resistance kúv (← ku-vo) despite, though Inactive
Stylization byǽv (← byæ-vo) along to, according to Instrumental

Particles

Conjunctions

Paratactical conjunctions
Copulative vo and
Conjunctive ṭáv also
Disjunctive sa or
Contrastive, exceptional but
Consequentive rèṣ so
Comparative pe than
Hypotactical conjunctions
to, for
tóvo althought
rèṣer because
eṭvo if
that, providing

Modifiers

Common modifiers
Restrictive òre only
Additive êṭe yet
Verbal modifiers
Potentional qay Expresses an action or situation which may be happen.
Hypothetical Expresses a counterfactual but possible event or situation.
Imperative í Expresses direct commands.
Prohibitive Expresses direct prohibitions.
Precative Expresses a requests.
Dubitative áx Expresses a dubious event or action.
Desiderative ryǽ Expresses a wishes or desires.
Jussive qháv Expresses a moral pressure for an action or event.
Obligative ġar Expresses an obligation from a personal oath, honour, contract or another event or action.
Permissive thóm Expresses a subject's permission to action or event.
Necessitative báqh Expresses an event or action, which is needed as a way to purpose.
Interrogative It is using to expressing a questions and interrogations.

Polarity particles

Affirmative ṭáx yes
Negative1 no

1 Only in independent form.

Word formation

Compounding

Derivation

Noun

Noun to noun
Diminutive -sí kháṣákháṣásí daughter → little daughter
Augmentative -dá dyǽrdyǽrdá mountain → grand mountain
Contradiction mô- minmômin human → non-human
Similarity -rǽx dumbdumbrǽx tree → pseudo-tree
Half -tyap súgsúgtyap dog → half-dog
Relational abstract -næn agôagônæn brother → brotherhood
Related person -tan bákbáktan cow → cowman
Place -der xôgxôgder fire → campfire
Art / Craft -kant bábábábákant war → craft of war
Knowledge -móg samarandsamarandmóg herb → herbalism
Expert -môgtan samarandmógsamarandmógtan herbalism → herbalist
Product -vík púrúpúrúvík meal → bread
Noun to adjective
Possessive -as xvaqxvaqas horse → equine
Originative -er-as deṇsudeṇsuras sky → celestial
Similaritive -tyás (← -tí-as) meṣṭemeṣtetyás cat → felid
Feature -svas (← -su-as) mvarmvarsvas hair → hairy
Affiliative -nyas (← -ni-as) ġánáġánányas family → familiar
Privative môv-...-as thǽdmôvthǽdas tooth → toothless

Verb

Verb to noun
Agentive -tan kuṣṭ-kuṣṭtan (to) shoot → shooter
Experiencer, adressee -mi mǽd-- → mǽdmi (to) teach → learner
Result -ma qub- → qubma (to) fall → (a) fall
Instance -pê iṣ-iṣpê (to) speak → speech
Instrument -kep bá-bákep (to) beat → hammer
Place -der gon-gonder (to) kill → slaughterhouse
Verb to verb
Reaction tu- bá-tubá- (to) beat → (to) shield against beatings
bábá-tubábá- (to) war → (to) repel attack
iṣ-tviṣ- (to) speak → (to) reply
Intensification syllabic reduplication bá-bábá- (to) beat → (to) war

Adjective

Adjective to noun
Abstract -næn bôndbôndnæn strong → strength
Adjective to adjective
Tendency -dyem tǽttǽtdyǽm good → bland
Intensification syllabic reduplication ġabġaġab big → very big
Excess -ġab tístísġab small → too small

Syntax

Word order

Main word order is SOV. Generally, also it may be free, so other combinations are possible without a meaning's change.

Copular verbs

Positive Negative
Translative ar became már don't became
Essive êṭ be môṭ don't be
Excessive èb cease to be im don't cease to be

See Also