Proto-Kinnərə language


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Proto-Kinnərə
Region Omoserica
Language family
  • Proto-Kinnərə
300px
  Proto-Kinnərə


Phonology

Consonants

Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Tenuis plosive p~ɸ t~ɾ̻ k~x ʔ~h
Voiced plosive b~β̞ d~ɾ g~ɰ
Fricative s
Trill r
Approximant l j

Spelling

p~ɸ t~ɾ̻ k~x ʔ~h /p~f t~ṭ k~x '~h/

b~β̝ d~ɾ g~ɰ /b~v d~ḍ g~ḥ/

s /s/

m n ŋ /m n ŋ/

l r /l r/

j /j/

Deplosivization

Plosives are deplosivized to non-plosive counterparts in positions between vowels and before another plosive consonant.

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid e ə o
Open a

i u /i u/

e ə o /e ə o/

ä /a/

Vocalic harmony (Low vs High)

High i ə u
Low e a o

Phonotactics

(C)V(R/F)(C)

C = any consonant
V = any vowel
R = any resonantal consonant
F = any fricative

Accent

Acute accent on first syllable.

Grammar

Nouns

  • indirective ditransitive alignment
  • no case and gender
  • relational nouns
  • possessors (preffixal)
  • tense markers (suffixal): shows position of an objects in time
  • definiteness: definite and indefinite clitics

[Possessor + Number + Root + Root extension + Definiteness + Tense] + [Relational noun's construction]

Number

Singular - kujlə wolf
Plural sa- saxojla wolves

Tense

Present - loḍja word
Past -ta / -tə loḍjata former word
Future -ne / -ni loḍjane future word

Definiteness

Neutral / Gnomic - bolga camel
Definite -ḍi / -ḍe bolgaḍe the camel
Indefinite -mu / -mo bolgamo a camel

Possessor

Singular Plural
1. li- I ni- we all, but not you
pi- we all, together with you
2. sə- Thou tol- You all
3. ka- He / she / it 'ahl- They all
4. 'eŋ- Someone / something

Relational nouns

Noun + [Possessor + Relational noun]

Burxdi kafaṭaḍe pelte pusujim.

"The dog is sleeping on top of the mat."

Spatials
'els inside in
paṭa top on
talba head above
tote foot under
'afo side beside
galam distance away
maṭpa centre between
kaḍa back behind, after
'əsrə outside out
puluxu wheel around
kəvri front before, opposite to
naxat time during, in time of
Other relationals
Companion, attributive object keme with
Originative direction 'atla from
Destinative direction, purpose, goal tala' to
Lack lokem without
Alternative 'ampere instead
Contrary surə against
Resistance 'ofet despite, though
Stylization najdo along to, according to
Benefactive kuxo for, destined to
Essive 'aja as, at character of

Verbs

  • polypersonal agreement (preffixal): subjective and objective
  • persons with clusivity in first, second and third person + obviative
  • intransitivity suffixed
  • three tenses (preffixal): present, past, future
  • three aspects (suffixal): durative, frequentative, momentane
  • two moods (cliticized): realis, irrealis
  • causative by auxiliary verb

[Subject + Object + Tense + Root + Root extension + Transitivity + Aspect + Mood]

Tense

Present - -taxe to work
Past di- -ditaxe to work (in past)
Future ne- -netaxe to work (in future)

Aspect

Durative - taḥla to speak
Frequentative -ri / -re taḥlare to speak often
Momentane -at / -ət / -t taḥlat quickly to say
Perfective -es / -is / -s taḥlas to say

Transitivity

Transitive - tem to see (in transitive clause)
Intransitive -an- / -ən- / -n- teman to see (in intransitive clause)

Moods

Realis - ak to go
Irrealis -ad / -əd / -d axad ... would go

Person

Subjective
Singular Plural
1. li- liṭim I am seeing ni- niṭim we all are seeing, but not you
pi- piṭim we all are seeing, together with you
2. sə- səṭim Thou art seeing to- toṭem You all are seeing
3. ka- kaṭem He / she / it is seeing 'ah- ahoṭem They all are seeing
4. 'eŋ- 'eŋtem Someone / something is seeing
Objective
Singular Plural
1. -li- -liṭim I am seeing -ni- -niṭim we all are seeing, but not you
-fi- -fiṭim we all are seeing, together with you
2. -sə- -səṭim Thou art seeing -ṭo- -ṭoṭem You all are seeing
3. -xa- -xaṭem He / she / it is seeing -hah- -hahṭem They all are seeing
4. -heŋ- -heŋtem Someone / something is seeing

Non-finite verbal forms

Action noun -ja / -jə bavja living
Infinitive -ko / -ku bavko' to live
Participle -jem / -jim bavjem living

Adjective / Adverb

Degrees of comparison

Positive Comparative Superlative
- -ses / -sis -tat / -tət
jev jevses jevtat
good better best

Numerals

Cardinal numerals

1. 'aṭan
2. sixik
3. tamek
4. tamek 'aṭan
5. tamek sixik

Derived numerals

Ordinal Multiplicative Reproductive Distributive
'a kal'a pəṭ'ə taha
1. 'a 'aṭan kal'a 'aṭan pəṭ'ə 'aṭan taha 'aṭan
2. 'a sixik kal'a sixik pəṭ'ə sixik taha sixik
3. 'a tamek kal'a tamek pəṭ'ə tamek taha tamek
4. 'a tamek 'aṭan kal'a tamek 'aṭan pəṭ'ə tamek 'aṭan taha tamek 'aṭan
5. 'a tamek sixik kal'a tamek sixik pəṭ'ə tamek sixik taha tamek sixik

Pronouns

  • clusivity
  • age hierarchy: young, average, older.

Personal pronouns

Young age
Subjective
Singular Plural
1. lixi I nixi we, but not you
pixi we, together with you
2. səxi Thou toxi You all
3. kaxi He / she / it 'ahki They all
4. 'eŋki Someone / something
Objective
Singular Plural
1. lilki me nilki us all, but not you
filki us all, together with you
2. səlki Thee tolke You all
3. kalke He / she / it 'alehke Them all
4. 'eŋelke Someone / something
Average
Subjective
Singular Plural
1. li I ni we all, but not you
pi we all, together with you
2. Thou tol You all
3. ka He / she / it 'ahl They all
4. ' Someone / something
Objective
Singular Plural
1. lil I nil us all, but not you
fil us all, together with you
2. səl Thee tol You all
3. kal Him / her / its 'ahl Them all
4. 'eŋel Someone / something
Older
Subjective
Singular Plural
1. lisəp I nisəp we all, but not you
pisəp we all, together with you
2. səsəp Thou tosap You all
3. kasap He / she / it 'ahsap They all
4. 'eŋsap Someone / something
Objective
Singular Plural
1. lilsəp me nilsəp us all, but not you
filsəp us all, together with you
2. səlsəp Thee tolsap You all
3. kalsap Him / her / its 'ahelsap Them all
4. heŋelsap Someone / something

Demonstrative pronouns

Definite Indefinite
Person / Object di this mu someone / something
Place 'aḍe here maṭamo somewhere
Path tahaḍe this way tahamo some way
Time naxatḍe now naxatmo then
Method 'eseḍe in this way 'esemo in some way
Quantity nafḍe so much
Qualify saḍoḍe like this saḍome like something
Reason kafraḍe for this reason kaframo for some reason

Interrogative, relative, indefinite and unlimited pronouns

Interrogative / Relative Indefinite Unlimited
Person / Object who ? which ? pəfə someone pərəsu anyone
Place pəha where ? pəhəfə somewhere pəhərəsu anywhere
Path pəṭəhə which way ? pəṭəhəfə via some way pəṭəhərəsu via any way
Time pənəxət when ? pənəxəṭfə once pənəxərəsu ever
Method pəhisi how ? pəhisifə somehow pəhisirəsu anyhow
Quantity pənəf how much ? pənəffə somehow much pənəfrəsu anyhow much
Quality pəsəḍu which one ? pəsəḍufə some pəsəḍurəsu any
Reason pəxəfrə why ?

Negative, universal and alternative pronouns

Negative Universal Alternative
Person / Object lofa nobody, nothing sarafa every pənuxi anyone else
Place loha nowhere saraha everywhere 'anoxe elswhere
Path loṭəhə through no way saraṭəhə through all ways tahanoxe which way else
Time lonaxat never saranaxat always naxaṭnoxe when else
Method lohese nohow sarahese in all methods 'isinuxi otherwise
Quantity lonap nothing saranap otherwise than so many
Quality losaḍo neuter, indistinct sarasaḍo any saḍonap other

Numeral pronouns

Interrogative / Relative pənəf how much ?
Indefinite nafḍe write a number
Unlimited pənəfrəsu however many
Negative lonap nothing
Alternative saranap otherwise than so many

Reflexive-reciprocal pronoun

Reflexive / Reciprocal nun oneself / each other

Particles

Conjunctions

Paratactical conjunctions
Copulative 'i and
Conjunctive 'ihi also
Disjunctive bəs or
Contrastive, exceptional 'ahe but
Consequentive jahe so
Comparative 'ohe than
Hypotactical conjunctions
koxese to, for
'ofet althought
tiṭi because
ja'o if
'erep that, providing

Modifiers

Restrictive 'aṭat only
Additive 'aṭe'a yet

Polarity particles

Affirmative 'at yes
Negative lo no

Word formation

Compounding

Derivation

Noun

Noun to noun
Diminutive -ki / -ke tahojetahojeke daughter → little daughter
Augmentative -ram / -rəm baḥgobaḥgoram mountain → grand mountain
Contradiction lo- binəlobena human → non-human
Similarity -kavka / -kəvkə koḍebkoḍevkavka tree → pseudo-tree
Half -pok / -puk burkburxpuk dog → half-dog
Relational abstract -jak / -jək naḍaŋnaḍaŋjak brother → brotherhood
Related person -binə / -bena muxbimuxbibinə cow → cowman
Collective -tahe / -təhi 'afla → 'aflatahe bird → birds (a a collective)
Place -'a / -'ə / -ha / -hə pirfirpirfir'ə fire → campfire
Art / Craft -məfki / -mafke kovadkovaḍmafke war → craft of war
Knowledge -deme / -dimi soxmasoxmadimi herb → herbalism
Expert -jem soxmasoxmajem herb → herbalist
Noun to adjective
Possessive -əni / -ane / -ni / -ne binəbinəni man → human
Originative -əni / -ane / -ni / -ne dandedandane sky → celestial
Similaritive -kavkan / -kəvkən burkburxkəvkən dog → canid
Feature -əni / -ane / -ni / -ne salajsalajne hair → hairy
Affiliative -əni / -ane / -ni / -ne govtagovtane family → familiar
Privative lo-...-əni / -ane / -ni / -ne kefelokefene tooth → toothless

Verb

Verb to noun
Agentive -jem / -jim kent-kentjem (to) shoot → shooter
Experiencer, adressee, object -(ə)n-jim / -(a)n-jem tak-takanjem (to) teach → learner
Result -ben / -bin tab-tavben (to) fall → (a) fall
Instance - taḥla-taḥla (to) speak → speech
Instrument -mane / -məni talp-talpmane (to) beat → whip
Place -'a / -ha / -'ə / -hə təm-təm'a (to) kill → slaughterhouse
Verb to verb

Adjective

Adjective to noun
Abstract -jak / -jək baholbaholjak strong → strength
Adjective to adjective
Intensification -gere / -giri dubudubugiri big → very big
Excess -kat / -xat / -kət / -xət tifitifixət small → too small

Syntax

Word order

  • SOV
  • head-initial

Copular particles

Translative sin became
Essive tu' be

Causativity

kuft
to cause litimən → litimən likuft I am seeing → I am showing
lihəxən → lihəxən likuft I am going → I am leading
lifərən → lifərən likuft I am carrying → I am elevating

See Also